he articles (97 to 102) in the Jordanian Constitution state:
Judges are independent and, in the exercise of their judicial functions, are subject to no authority other than that of the law.
1- Judges of the Civil and Sharia Courts shall be appointed and dismissed by a Royal Decree, in accordance with the provisions of the law.
2- A Judicial Council shall be established by law. It will be responsible for matters related to civil judges.
3- Subject to paragraph (1) of this article, the Judicial Council shall have the sole right to appoint civil judges, in accordance with the provisions of the law.
The courts shall be divided into three categories:
i. Civil Courts
ii. Religious Courts
iii. Special Courts
The establishment of the various courts and their categories, divisions, jurisdiction and administration shall be, by virtue of a special law, provided that such law allows the establishment of a High Court of Justice, whose law shall state that the administrative judiciary should be at two levels.
1- The courts shall be open to all and free from any interference in their affairs.
2- A civilian may not be tried in a criminal case before a court whose judges are not all civilians, with the exception of crimes of high treason, espionage, terrorism, drug crimes and counterfeit currency.
3- Courts hearings shall be public, unless the court decides that they should be secret in the interest of public order or morals. In all cases, the verdict shall be pronounced during a public session.
4- The accused is innocent until proven guilty.
The Civil Courts in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan shall have jurisdiction over all persons in all matters, civil and criminal, including cases brought by or against the Government, except in matters which, by the provisions of the Constitution, or of any Law for the time being in force, fall within the jurisdiction of Religious Courts or Special Courts.