Jordan’s constitution guarantees the independence of the judicial branch, clearly stating that judges are “subject to no authority but that of the law.” While the king must approve the appointment and dismissal of judges, in practice these are supervised by the Higher Judicial Council, which forms independent decisions regarding the periodic recommendations submitted to it by the Ministry of Justice.
Article 99 of the Constitution divides the courts into three categories: civil, religious and special courts. The civil courts exercise their jurisdiction in respect to civil and criminal matters in accordance with the law, and they have jurisdiction over all persons in all matters, civil and criminal, including cases brought against the government. The civil courts include Magistrate Courts, Courts of First Instance, Courts of Appeal, High Administrative Courts and the Court of Cassation (Supreme Court). The Jordanian civil legal system has its foundations in the Code Napoléon, a French legal code implemented in Egypt in the early 19th century