2 USC Sec. 431 01/03/2012 (112-90) – DISCLOSURE OF FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FUNDS

2 USC Sec. 431 01/03/2012 (112-90)

-EXPCITE-

TITLE 2 – THE CONGRESS

CHAPTER 14 – FEDERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

SUBCHAPTER I – DISCLOSURE OF FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FUNDS

-HEAD-

Sec. 431. Definitions

-STATUTE-

When used in this Act:

(1) The term “election” means –

(A) a general, special, primary, or runoff election;

(B) a convention or caucus of a political party which has

authority to nominate a candidate;

(C) a primary election held for the selection of delegates to a

national nominating convention of a political party; and

(D) a primary election held for the expression of a preference

for the nomination of individuals for election to the office of

President.

(2) The term “candidate” means an individual who seeks nomination

for election, or election, to Federal office, and for purposes of

this paragraph, an individual shall be deemed to seek nomination

for election, or election –

(A) if such individual has received contributions aggregating

in excess of $5,000 or has made expenditures aggregating in

excess of $5,000; or

(B) if such individual has given his or her consent to another

person to receive contributions or make expenditures on behalf of

such individual and if such person has received such

contributions aggregating in excess of $5,000 or has made such

expenditures aggregating in excess of $5,000.

(3) The term “Federal office” means the office of President or

Vice President, or of Senator or Representative in, or Delegate or

Resident Commissioner to, the Congress.

(4) The term “political committee” means –

(A) any committee, club, association, or other group of persons

which receives contributions aggregating in excess of $1,000

during a calendar year or which makes expenditures aggregating in

excess of $1,000 during a calendar year; or

(B) any separate segregated fund established under the

provisions of section 441b(b) of this title; or

(C) any local committee of a political party which receives

contributions aggregating in excess of $5,000 during a calendar

year, or makes payments exempted from the definition of

contribution or expenditure as defined in paragraphs (8) and (9)

aggregating in excess of $5,000 during a calendar year, or makes

contributions aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar

year or makes expenditures aggregating in excess of $1,000 during

a calendar year.

(5) The term “principal campaign committee” means a political

committee designated and authorized by a candidate under section

432(e)(1) of this title.

(6) The term “authorized committee” means the principal campaign

committee or any other political committee authorized by a

candidate under section 432(e)(1) of this title to receive

contributions or make expenditures on behalf of such candidate.

(7) The term “connected organization” means any organization

which is not a political committee but which directly or indirectly

establishes, administers or financially supports a political

committee.

(8)(A) The term “contribution” includes –

(i) any gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of money

or anything of value made by any person for the purpose of

influencing any election for Federal office; or

(ii) the payment by any person of compensation for the personal

services of another person which are rendered to a political

committee without charge for any purpose.

(B) The term “contribution” does not include –

(i) the value of services provided without compensation by any

individual who volunteers on behalf of a candidate or political

committee;

(ii) the use of real or personal property, including a church

or community room used on a regular basis by members of a

community for noncommercial purposes, and the cost of

invitations, food, and beverages, voluntarily provided by an

individual to any candidate or any political committee of a

political party in rendering voluntary personal services on the

individual’s residential premises or in the church or community

room for candidate-related or political party-related activities,

to the extent that the cumulative value of such invitations,

food, and beverages provided by such individual on behalf of any

single candidate does not exceed $1,000 with respect to any

single election, and on behalf of all political committees of a

political party does not exceed $2,000 in any calendar year;

(iii) the sale of any food or beverage by a vendor for use in

any candidate’s campaign or for use by or on behalf of any

political committee of a political party at a charge less than

the normal comparable charge, if such charge is at least equal to

the cost of such food or beverage to the vendor, to the extent

that the cumulative value of such activity by such vendor on

behalf of any single candidate does not exceed $1,000 with

respect to any single election, and on behalf of all political

committees of a political party does not exceed $2,000 in any

calendar year;

(iv) any unreimbursed payment for travel expenses made by any

individual on behalf of any candidate or any political committee

of a political party, to the extent that the cumulative value of

such activity by such individual on behalf of any single

candidate does not exceed $1,000 with respect to any single

election, and on behalf of all political committees of a

political party does not exceed $2,000 in any calendar year;

(v) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of preparation, display, or mailing or other

distribution incurred by such committee with respect to a printed

slate card or sample ballot, or other printed listing, of 3 or

more candidates for any public office for which an election is

held in the State in which such committee is organized, except

that this clause shall not apply to any cost incurred by such

committee with respect to a display of any such listing made on

broadcasting stations, or in newspapers, magazines, or similar

types of general public political advertising;

(vi) any payment made or obligation incurred by a corporation

or a labor organization which, under section 441b(b) of this

title, would not constitute an expenditure by such corporation or

labor organization;

(vii) any loan of money by a State bank, a federally chartered

depository institution, or a depository institution the deposits

or accounts of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance

Corporation, Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, or

the National Credit Union Administration, other than any

overdraft made with respect to a checking or savings account,

made in accordance with applicable law and in the ordinary course

of business, but such loan –

(I) shall be considered a loan by each endorser or guarantor,

in that proportion of the unpaid balance that each endorser or

guarantor bears to the total number of endorsers or guarantors;

(II) shall be made on a basis which assures repayment,

evidenced by a written instrument, and subject to a due date or

amortization schedule; and

(III) shall bear the usual and customary interest rate of the

lending institution;

(viii) any legal or accounting services rendered to or on

behalf of –

(I) any political committee of a political party if the

person paying for such services is the regular employer of the

person rendering such services and if such services are not

attributable to activities which directly further the election

of any designated candidate to Federal office; or

(II) an authorized committee of a candidate or any other

political committee, if the person paying for such services is

the regular employer of the individual rendering such services

and if such services are solely for the purpose of ensuring

compliance with this Act or chapter 95 or chapter 96 of title

26,

but amounts paid or incurred by the regular employer for such

legal or accounting services shall be reported in accordance with

section 434(b) of this title by the committee receiving such

services;

(ix) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of campaign materials (such as pins, bumper

stickers, handbills, brochures, posters, party tabloids, and yard

signs) used by such committee in connection with volunteer

activities on behalf of nominees of such party: Provided, That –

(1) such payments are not for the costs of campaign materials

or activities used in connection with any broadcasting,

newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of

general public communication or political advertising;

(2) such payments are made from contributions subject to the

limitations and prohibitions of this Act; and

(3) such payments are not made from contributions designated

to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or particular

candidates;

(x) the payment by a candidate, for nomination or election to

any public office (including State or local office), or

authorized committee of a candidate, of the costs of campaign

materials which include information on or referenced to any other

candidate and which are used in connection with volunteer

activities (including pins, bumper stickers, handbills,

brochures, posters, and yard signs, but not including the use of

broadcasting, newspapers, magazines, billboards, direct mail, or

similar types of general public communication or political

advertising): Provided, That such payments are made from

contributions subject to the limitations and prohibitions of this

Act;

(xi) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of voter registration and get-out-the-vote

activities conducted by such committee on behalf of nominees of

such party for President and Vice President: Provided, That –

(1) such payments are not for the costs of campaign materials

or activities used in connection with any broadcasting,

newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of

general public communication or political advertising;

(2) such payments are made from contributions subject to the

limitations and prohibitions of this Act; and

(3) such payments are not made from contributions designated

to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or candidates;

(xii) payments made by a candidate or the authorized committee

of a candidate as a condition of ballot access and payments

received by any political party committee as a condition of

ballot access;

(xiii) any honorarium (within the meaning of section 441i of

this title); and

(xiv) any loan of money derived from an advance on a

candidate’s brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of

credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate, if

such loan is made in accordance with applicable law and under

commercially reasonable terms and if the person making such loan

makes loans derived from an advance on the candidate’s brokerage

account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line

of credit in the normal course of the person’s business.

(9)(A) The term “expenditure” includes –

(i) any purchase, payment, distribution, loan, advance,

deposit, or gift of money or anything of value, made by any

person for the purpose of influencing any election for Federal

office; and

(ii) a written contract, promise, or agreement to make an

expenditure.

(B) The term “expenditure” does not include –

(i) any news story, commentary, or editorial distributed

through the facilities of any broadcasting station, newspaper,

magazine, or other periodical publication, unless such facilities

are owned or controlled by any political party, political

committee, or candidate;

(ii) nonpartisan activity designed to encourage individuals to

vote or to register to vote;

(iii) any communication by any membership organization or

corporation to its members, stockholders, or executive or

administrative personnel, if such membership organization or

corporation is not organized primarily for the purpose of

influencing the nomination for election, or election, of any

individual to Federal office, except that the costs incurred by a

membership organization (including a labor organization) or by a

corporation directly attributable to a communication expressly

advocating the election or defeat of a clearly identified

candidate (other than a communication primarily devoted to

subjects other than the express advocacy of the election or

defeat of a clearly identified candidate), shall, if such costs

exceed $2,000 for any election, be reported to the Commission in

accordance with section 434(a)(4)(A)(i) of this title, and in

accordance with section 434(a)(4)(A)(ii) of this title with

respect to any general election;

(iv) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of preparation, display, or mailing or other

distribution incurred by such committee with respect to a printed

slate card or sample ballot, or other printed listing, of 3 or

more candidates for any public office for which an election is

held in the State in which such committee is organized, except

that this clause shall not apply to costs incurred by such

committee with respect to a display of any such listing made on

broadcasting stations, or in newspapers, magazines, or similar

types of general public political advertising;

(v) any payment made or obligation incurred by a corporation or

a labor organization which, under section 441b(b) of this title,

would not constitute an expenditure by such corporation or labor

organization;

(vi) any costs incurred by an authorized committee or candidate

in connection with the solicitation of contributions on behalf of

such candidate, except that this clause shall not apply with

respect to costs incurred by an authorized committee of a

candidate in excess of an amount equal to 20 percent of the

expenditure limitation applicable to such candidate under section

441a(b) of this title, but all such costs shall be reported in

accordance with section 434(b) of this title;

(vii) the payment of compensation for legal or accounting

services –

(I) rendered to or on behalf of any political committee of a

political party if the person paying for such services is the

regular employer of the individual rendering such services, and

if such services are not attributable to activities which

directly further the election of any designated candidate to

Federal office; or

(II) rendered to or on behalf of a candidate or political

committee if the person paying for such services is the regular

employer of the individual rendering such services, and if such

services are solely for the purpose of ensuring compliance with

this Act or chapter 95 or chapter 96 of title 26,

but amounts paid or incurred by the regular employer for such

legal or accounting services shall be reported in accordance with

section 434(b) of this title by the committee receiving such

services;

(viii) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of campaign materials (such as pins, bumper

stickers, handbills, brochures, posters, party tabloids, and yard

signs) used by such committee in connection with volunteer

activities on behalf of nominees of such party: Provided, That –

(1) such payments are not for the costs of campaign materials

or activities used in connection with any broadcasting,

newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of

general public communication or political advertising;

(2) such payments are made from contributions subject to the

limitations and prohibitions of this Act; and

(3) such payments are not made from contributions designated

to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or particular

candidates;

(ix) the payment by a State or local committee of a political

party of the costs of voter registration and get-out-the-vote

activities conducted by such committee on behalf of nominees of

such party for President and Vice President: Provided, That –

(1) such payments are not for the costs of campaign materials

or activities used in connection with any broadcasting,

newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of

general public communication or political advertising;

(2) such payments are made from contributions subject to the

limitations and prohibitions of this Act; and

(3) such payments are not made from contributions designated

to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or candidates;

and

(x) payments received by a political party committee as a

condition of ballot access which are transferred to another

political party committee or the appropriate State official.

(10) The term “Commission” means the Federal Election Commission.

(11) The term “person” includes an individual, partnership,

committee, association, corporation, labor organization, or any

other organization or group of persons, but such term does not

include the Federal Government or any authority of the Federal

Government.

(12) The term “State” means a State of the United States, the

District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a

territory or possession of the United States.

(13) The term “identification” means –

(A) in the case of any individual, the name, the mailing

address, and the occupation of such individual, as well as the

name of his or her employer; and

(B) in the case of any other person, the full name and address

of such person.

(14) The term “national committee” means the organization which,

by virtue of the bylaws of a political party, is responsible for

the day-to-day operation of such political party at the national

level, as determined by the Commission.

(15) The term “State committee” means the organization which, by

virtue of the bylaws of a political party, is responsible for the

day-to-day operation of such political party at the State level, as

determined by the Commission.

(16) The term “political party” means an association, committee,

or organization which nominates a candidate for election to any

Federal office whose name appears on the election ballot as the

candidate of such association, committee, or organization.

(17) Independent expenditure. – The term “independent

expenditure” means an expenditure by a person –

(A) expressly advocating the election or defeat of a clearly

identified candidate; and

(B) that is not made in concert or cooperation with or at the

request or suggestion of such candidate, the candidate’s

authorized political committee, or their agents, or a political

party committee or its agents.

(18) The term “clearly identified” means that –

(A) the name of the candidate involved appears;

(B) a photograph or drawing of the candidate appears; or

(C) the identity of the candidate is apparent by unambiguous

reference.

(19) The term “Act” means the Federal Election Campaign Act of

1971 as amended.

(20) Federal election activity. –

(A) In general. – The term “Federal election activity” means –

(i) voter registration activity during the period that begins

on the date that is 120 days before the date a regularly

scheduled Federal election is held and ends on the date of the

election;

(ii) voter identification, get-out-the-vote activity, or

generic campaign activity conducted in connection with an

election in which a candidate for Federal office appears on the

ballot (regardless of whether a candidate for State or local

office also appears on the ballot);

(iii) a public communication that refers to a clearly

identified candidate for Federal office (regardless of whether

a candidate for State or local office is also mentioned or

identified) and that promotes or supports a candidate for that

office, or attacks or opposes a candidate for that office

(regardless of whether the communication expressly advocates a

vote for or against a candidate); or

(iv) services provided during any month by an employee of a

State, district, or local committee of a political party who

spends more than 25 percent of that individual’s compensated

time during that month on activities in connection with a

Federal election.

(B) Excluded activity. – The term “Federal election activity”

does not include an amount expended or disbursed by a State,

district, or local committee of a political party for –

(i) a public communication that refers solely to a clearly

identified candidate for State or local office, if the

communication is not a Federal election activity described in

subparagraph (A)(i) or (ii);

(ii) a contribution to a candidate for State or local office,

provided the contribution is not designated to pay for a

Federal election activity described in subparagraph (A);

(iii) the costs of a State, district, or local political

convention; and

(iv) the costs of grassroots campaign materials, including

buttons, bumper stickers, and yard signs, that name or depict

only a candidate for State or local office.

(21) Generic campaign activity. – The term “generic campaign

activity” means a campaign activity that promotes a political party

and does not promote a candidate or non-Federal candidate.

(22) Public communication. – The term “public communication”

means a communication by means of any broadcast, cable, or

satellite communication, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising

facility, mass mailing, or telephone bank to the general public, or

any other form of general public political advertising.

(23) Mass mailing. – The term “mass mailing” means a mailing by

United States mail or facsimile of more than 500 pieces of mail

matter of an identical or substantially similar nature within any

30-day period.

(24) Telephone bank. – The term “telephone bank” means more than

500 telephone calls of an identical or substantially similar nature

within any 30-day period.

(25) Election cycle. – For purposes of sections 441a(i) and 441a-

1 of this title and paragraph (26), the term “election cycle”

means the period beginning on the day after the date of the most

recent election for the specific office or seat that a candidate is

seeking and ending on the date of the next election for that office

or seat. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a primary election

and a general election shall be considered to be separate

elections.

(26) Personal funds. – The term “personal funds” means an amount

that is derived from –

(A) any asset that, under applicable State law, at the time the

individual became a candidate, the candidate had legal right of

access to or control over, and with respect to which the

candidate had –

(i) legal and rightful title; or

(ii) an equitable interest;

(B) income received during the current election cycle of the

candidate, including –

(i) a salary and other earned income from bona fide

employment;

(ii) dividends and proceeds from the sale of the candidate’s

stocks or other investments;

(iii) bequests to the candidate;

(iv) income from trusts established before the beginning of

the election cycle;

(v) income from trusts established by bequest after the

beginning of the election cycle of which the candidate is the

beneficiary;

(vi) gifts of a personal nature that had been customarily

received by the candidate prior to the beginning of the

election cycle; and

(vii) proceeds from lotteries and similar legal games of

chance; and

(C) a portion of assets that are jointly owned by the candidate

and the candidate’s spouse equal to the candidate’s share of the

asset under the instrument of conveyance or ownership, but if no

specific share is indicated by an instrument of conveyance or

ownership, the value of 1/2 of the property.

-SOURCE-

(Pub. L. 92-225, title III, Sec. 301, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 11;

Pub. L. 93-443, title II, Secs. 201(a), 208(c)(1), Oct. 15, 1974,

88 Stat. 1272, 1286; Pub. L. 94-283, title I, Secs. 102, 115(d),

(h), May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 478, 495, 496; Pub. L. 96-187, title I,

Sec. 101, Jan. 8, 1980, 93 Stat. 1339; Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct.

22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 106-346, Sec. 101(a) [title V,

Sec. 502(b)], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A-49; Pub. L. 107-

155, title I, Secs. 101(b), 103(b)(1), title II, Sec. 211, title

III, Sec. 304(c), Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 85, 87, 92, 100.)

-REFTEXT-

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, as amended, referred

to in par. (19), is Pub. L. 92-225, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 3, as

amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For

complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title

notes set out below and Tables.

-MISC1-

AMENDMENTS

2002 – Par. (8)(B)(viii) to (xv). Pub. L. 107-155, Sec.

103(b)(1), redesignated cls. (ix) to (xv) as (viii) to (xiv),

respectively, and struck out former cl. (viii) which read as

follows: “any gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of

money or anything of value to a national or a State committee of a

political party specifically designated to defray any cost for

construction or purchase of any office facility not acquired for

the purpose of influencing the election of any candidate in any

particular election for Federal office;”.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 107-155, Sec. 211, added par. (17) and struck

out former par. (17) which read as follows: “The term ‘independent

expenditure’ means an expenditure by a person expressly advocating

the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate which is

made without cooperation or consultation with any candidate, or any

authorized committee or agent of such candidate, and which is not

made in concert with, or at the request or suggestion of, any

candidate, or any authorized committee or agent of such candidate.”

Pars. (20) to (24). Pub. L. 107-155, Sec. 101(b), added pars.

(20) to (24).

Pars. (25), (26). Pub. L. 107-155, Sec. 304(c), added pars. (25)

and (26).

2000 – Par. (8)(B)(xv). Pub. L. 106-346 added cl. (xv).

1986 – Pars. (8)(B)(ix)(II), (9)(A)(vii)(II). Pub. L. 99-514

substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue

Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as

“title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1980 – Pub. L. 96-187 changed the section designations from

letters to numbers, and as so redesignated, substantially redefined

the terms applicable to the provisions of this Act.

1976 – Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94-283, Sec. 102(a), substituted

“party which has authority to nominate” for “party held to

nominate”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 94-283, Sec. 102(b), substituted “written

contract, promise, or agreement,” for “contract, promise, or

agreement, expressed or implied,”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 94-283, Sec. 102(c), inserted provisions

establishing an exception for legal or accounting services.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 94-283, Secs. 102(d), (e), 115(d) (1),

substituted “section 441b(b) of this title” for “the last paragraph

of section 610 of title 18, United States Code” in cl. (F), added

cls. (G), (H), and (I), and, in the provisions following cl. (I),

substituted “person” for “individual”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 94-283, Secs. 102(f), 115(d)(2), inserted

provisions in cl. (C) requiring the reporting to the Commission of

costs directly attributable to a communication expressly advocating

the election or defeat of a clearly identifiable candidate if those

costs should exceed $2,000 per election, substituted “section

441b(b) of this title” for “the last paragraph of section 610 of

title 18, United States Code” in cl. (H), and added cls. (I), (J),

and (K).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 94-283, Sec. 115(h), substituted “section

432(e) (1) of this title” for “section 432(f)(1) of this title”.

Subsec. (o) to (q). Pub. L. 94-283, Sec. 102(g)(3), added

subsecs. (o) to (q).

1974 – Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a) (1), inserted introductory

reference to title IV of this Act, which for purposes of

codification is translated as subchapter II of this chapter.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a)(2), struck out from

definition of “election” the election of delegates to a

constitutional convention for proposing amendments to the

Constitution of the United States.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a)(3), inserted reference

to “club,” before “association” and substituted “other group of

persons” and “receives” for “organization” and “accepts”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a)(4), transferred the word

“means” after introductory word “contribution” to become the

initial word in pars. (1) to (4); in par. (1), incorporated

existing provisions in provisions designated subpars. (A) and (B),

and deleted former provisions respecting contributions for the

purpose of influencing the nomination for election, or election, of

any person as a presidential election or for the purpose of

influencing the election of delegates to a constitutional

convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution of the

United States; in par. (2), provided for express or implied

transactions; in par. (3), substitution of “funds received by a

political committee which are transferred to such committee from

another political committee or other source” for “a transfer of

funds between political committees”; inserted at end of par. (4)

the word “but”; and added par. (5.)

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a)(5), transferred the word

“means” following introductory word “expenditure” to become the

initial word in pars. (1) to (3); in par. (1), incorporated

existing provisions in provisions designated subpars. (A) to (C)

and deleted end text reading “, or for the purpose of influencing

the election of delegates to a constitutional convention for

proposing amendments to the Constitution of the United States”; in

par. (2), provided for express or implied transactions; in par.

(3), substituted “the transfer of funds by a political committee to

another political committee; but” for “a transfer of funds between

political committees”; and added par. (4).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 208(c)(1), substituted

definition of “Commission” for “supervisory officer”.

Subsecs. (j) to (n). Pub. L. 93-443, Sec. 201(a)(6)-(8), added

subsecs. (j) to (n).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT; REGULATIONS

Pub. L. 107-155, title IV, Sec. 402, Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat.

112, provided that:

“(a) General Effective Date. –

“(1) In general. – Except as provided in the succeeding

provisions of this section, the effective date of this Act [see

Short Title of 2002 Amendment note below], and the amendments

made by this Act, is November 6, 2002.

“(2) Modification of contribution limits. – The amendments made

by –

“(A) section 102 [amending section 441a of this title] shall

apply with respect to contributions made on or after January 1,

2003; and

“(B) section 307 [amending section 441a of this title] shall

take effect as provided in subsection (e) of such section

[enacting provisions set out as a note under section 441a of

this title].

“(3) Severability; effective dates and regulations; judicial

review. – Title IV [enacting provisions set out as notes under

sections 437h and 454 of this title] shall take effect on the

date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 27, 2002].

“(4) Provisions not to apply to runoff elections. – Section

323(b) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 [2 U.S.C.

441i(b)] (as added by section 101(a)), section 103(a) [amending

section 434 of this title], title II [amending this section and

sections 434, 441a, and 441b of this title and enacting

provisions set out as notes under sections 434 and 441a of this

title], sections 304 [amending this section and sections 434 and

441a of this title] (including section 315(j) of Federal Election

Campaign Act of 1971 [2 U.S.C. 441a(j)], as added by section

304(a)(2)), 305 [amending section 315 of Title 47, Telegraphs,

Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs, and enacting provisions set out

as a note under section 315 of Title 47] (notwithstanding

subsection (c) of such section [enacting provisions set out as a

note under section 315 of Title 47]), 311 [amending section 441d

of this title], 316 [amending section 441a of this title], 318

[enacting section 441k of this title], and 319 [enacting section

441a-1 of this title and amending section 441a of this title],

and title V [enacting section 438a of this title and amending

section 434 of this title and section 315 of Title 47] (and the

amendments made by such sections and titles) shall take effect on

November 6, 2002, but shall not apply with respect to runoff

elections, recounts, or election contests resulting from

elections held prior to such date.

“(b) Soft Money of National Political Parties. –

“(1) In general. – Except for subsection (b) of such section,

section 323 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 [2

U.S.C. 441i] (as added by section 101(a)) shall take effect on

November 6, 2002.

“(2) Transitional rules for the spending of soft money of

national political parties. –

“(A) In general. – Notwithstanding section 323(a) of the

Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 [2 U.S.C. 441i(a)] (as

added by section 101(a)), if a national committee of a

political party described in such section (including any person

who is subject to such section under paragraph (2) of such

section), has received funds described in such section prior to

November 6, 2002, the rules described in subparagraph (B) shall

apply with respect to the spending of the amount of such funds

in the possession of such committee as of such date.

“(B) Use of excess soft money funds. –

“(i) In general. – Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), the

national committee of a political party may use the amount

described in subparagraph (A) prior to January 1, 2003,

solely for the purpose of –

“(I) retiring outstanding debts or obligations that were

incurred solely in connection with an election held prior to

November 6, 2002; or

“(II) paying expenses or retiring outstanding debts or paying

for obligations that were incurred solely in connection with

any runoff election, recount, or election contest resulting

from an election held prior to November 6, 2002.

“(ii) Prohibition on using soft money for hard money

expenses, debts, and obligations. – A national committee of a

political party may not use the amount described in

subparagraph (A) for any expenditure (as defined in section

301(9) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (2 U.S.C.

431(9))) or for retiring outstanding debts or obligations

that were incurred for such an expenditure.

“(iii) Prohibition of building fund uses. – A national

committee of a political party may not use the amount

described in subparagraph (A) for activities to defray the

costs of the construction or purchase of any office building

or facility.

“(c) Regulations. –

“(1) In general. – Except as provided in paragraph (2), the

Federal Election Commission shall promulgate regulations to carry

out this Act [see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note below] and

the amendments made by this Act that are under the Commission’s

jurisdiction not later than 270 days after the date of enactment

of this Act [Mar. 27, 2002].

“(2) Soft money of political parties. – Not later than 90 days

after the date of enactment of this Act, the Federal Election

Commission shall promulgate regulations to carry out title I of

this Act [enacting section 441i of this title and amending this

section and sections 434, 441a, and 453 of this title] and the

amendments made by such title.”

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2000 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 106-346, Sec. 101(a) [title V, Sec. 502(d)], Oct. 23,

2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A-50, provided that: “The amendments made

by this section [amending this section and section 434 of this

title] shall apply with respect to elections occurring after

January 2001.”

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1980 AMENDMENT

Section 301 of Pub. L. 96-187 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by

this Act [see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out below] are

effective upon enactment [Jan. 8, 1980].

“(b) For authorized committees of candidates for President and

Vice President, section 304(b) of the Federal Election Campaign Act

of 1971 [section 434(b) of this title] shall be effective for

elections occurring after January 1, 1981.”

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENT

Section 410 of Pub. L. 93-443 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided by subsection (b) and subsection (c), the

foregoing provisions of this Act [enacting sections 437a to 437h,

439a to 439c, 455 and 456 of this title sections 614 to 617 of

Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 9031 to 9042

of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 431 to 437,

438, 439, 451 to 453 of this title, sections 1501 to 1503 of Title

5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 591, 608, 610,

611, and 613 of Title 18, sections 276, 6012, and 9002 to 9012 of

Title 26, and section 315 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and

Radiotelegraphs, repealing section 440 of this title, section 9021

of Title 26, and sections 801 to 805 of Title 47, and enacting

provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 432,

434, 437c, and 438 of this title, sections 591 and 608 of Title 18,

and section 9006 of Title 26] shall become effective January 1,

1975.

“(b) Section 104 [set out as a note under section 591 of Title

18] and the amendment made by section 301 [amending section 453 of

this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of

this Act [Oct. 15, 1974].

“(c)(1) The amendments made by sections 403(a), 404, 405, 406,

408, and 409 [enacting sections 9031 to 9042, amending sections

276, 9002, 9003, 9004, 9005, 9006, 9007, 9008, 9009, 9010, 9011,

and 9012, and repealing section 9021 of Title 26] shall apply with

respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1974.

“(2) The amendment made by section 407 [amending section 6012 of

Title 26] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after

December 31, 1971.”

EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 408, formerly Sec. 406, of Pub. L. 92-225 as renumbered

Pub. L. 93-443, title III, Sec. 302, Oct. 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1289,

provided that: “Except as provided in section 401 of this Act

[section 451 of this title], the provisions of this Act [see Short

Title note set out below] shall become effective on December 31,

1971, or sixty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb.

7, 1972], whichever is later.”

SHORT TITLE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 107-155, Sec. 1(a), Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 81, provided

that: “This Act [enacting sections 438a, 439a, 441a-1, 441i, and

441k of this title and section 510 of Title 36, Patriotic and

National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations, amending this

section, sections 434, 437g, 441a, 441b, 441d, 441e, 441h, 453, and

455 of this title, section 607 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal

Procedure, and section 315 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and

Radiotelegraphs, transferring section 510 of Title 36 to section

511 of Title 36, repealing section 439a of this title, enacting

provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 434, 437g,

437h, 441a, 454, and 455 of this title, and section 315 of Title

47, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 994 of

Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the

‘Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002’.”

SHORT TITLE OF 1980 AMENDMENT

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96-187 provided: “That this Act [amending

this section and sections 432 to 434, 437, 437c, 437d, 437f to

439a, 439c, 441a to 441i of this title, section 3132 of Title 5,

Government Organization and Employees, sections 602, 603, and 607

of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 901a of Title

22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, section 9008 of Title 26,

Internal Revenue Code, and section 5043 of Title 42, The Public

Health and Welfare; repealing sections 435, 436, 437b, 437e, 439b,

and 441j of this title and section 591 of Title 18; and enacting

provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the

‘Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1979’.”

SHORT TITLE OF 1976 AMENDMENT

Section 1 of Pub. L. 94-283 provided that: “This Act [enacting

sections 441a to 441j of this title, amending this section and

sections 432, 434, 436, 437b to 439c, and 455 of this title,

section 591 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and

sections 9002, 9003, 9004, 9006, 9007, 9008, 9009, 9012, 9032,

9033, 9034, 9035, and 9039 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code,

repealing sections 437a, 441, and 456 of this title and sections

608, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, and 617 of Title 18, and

enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 437c, 437f, and

441 of this title and sections 9002, 9004, and 9035 of Title 26]

may be cited as the ‘Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of

1976’.”

SHORT TITLE OF 1974 AMENDMENT

Section 1 of Pub. L. 93-443 provided: “That this Act [enacting

sections 437a to 437h, 439a to 439c, 455, and 456 of this title,

sections 614 to 617 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and

sections 9031 to 9042 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code; amending

this section and sections 432 to 437, 438, 439 and 451 to 453 of

this title, sections 1501 to 1503 of Title 5, Government

Organization and Employees, sections 591, 608, 610, 611, and 613 of

Title 18, sections 276, 6012, 9002 to 9012 of Title 26, and section

315 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs;

repealing section 440 of this title, section 9021 of Title 26, and

sections 801 to 805 of Title 47; and enacting provisions set out as

notes under this section and sections 434, 437c, and 438 of this

title, sections 591 and 608 of Title 18, and section 9006 of Title

26] may be cited as the ‘Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments

of 1974’.”

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 92-225 provided: “That this Act [enacting

this chapter and chapter 7 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and

Radiotelegraphs, amending sections 591, 600, 608, 610, and 611 of

Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 312 and 315

of Title 47, repealing sections 241 to 256 of this title and

section 609 of Title 18, and enacting provisions set out as notes

under this section and section 801 of Title 47] may be cited as the

‘Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971’.”

-TRANS-

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation abolished and

functions transferred, see Pub. L. 101-73, title IV, Secs. 401-406,

Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 354-363, set out as a note under section

1437 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

-MISC2-

TRANSITION PROVISIONS

Section 303 of Pub. L. 96-187 provided that:

“(a) The Federal Election Commission shall transmit to the

Congress proposed rules and regulations necessary for the purpose

of implementing the provisions of this Act, and the amendments made

by this Act [see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out above],

prior to February 29, 1980.

“(b) The provisions of section 311(d) of the Federal Election

Campaign Act of 1971 [section 438(d) of this title] allowing

disapproval of rules and regulations by either House of Congress

within 30 legislative days after receipt shall, with respect to

rules and regulations required to be proposed under subsection (a)

of this section, be deemed to allow such disapproval within 15

legislative days after receipt.”

STUDY AND REPORT ON CLEAN MONEY CLEAN ELECTIONS LAWS

Pub. L. 107-155, title III, Sec. 310, Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat.

104, provided that:

“(a) Clean Money Clean Elections Defined. – In this section, the

term ‘clean money clean elections’ means funds received under State

laws that provide in whole or in part for the public financing of

election campaigns.

“(b) Study. –

“(1) In general. – The Comptroller General shall conduct a

study of the clean money clean elections of Arizona and Maine.

“(2) Matters studied. –

“(A) Statistics on clean money clean elections candidates. –

The Comptroller General shall determine –

“(i) the number of candidates who have chosen to run for

public office with clean money clean elections including –

“(I) the office for which they were candidates;

“(II) whether the candidate was an incumbent or a challenger;

and

“(III) whether the candidate was successful in the candidate’s

bid for public office; and

“(ii) the number of races in which at least one candidate

ran an election with clean money clean elections.

“(B) Effects of clean money clean elections. – The

Comptroller General of the United States shall describe the

effects of public financing under the clean money clean

elections laws on the 2000 elections in Arizona and Maine.

“(c) Report. – Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment

of this Act [Mar. 27, 2002], the Comptroller General of the United

States shall submit a report to the Congress detailing the results

of the study conducted under subsection (b).”

VOTING SYSTEM STUDY; REPORT TO CONGRESS; COST OF STUDY

Section 302 of Pub. L. 96-187, as amended by Pub. L. 100-418,

title V, Sec. 5115(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1433, provided

that: “The Federal Election Commission with the cooperation and

assistance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology,

shall conduct a preliminary study with respect to the future

development of voluntary engineering and procedural performance

standards for voting systems used in the United States. The

Commission shall report to the Congress the results of the study,

and such report shall include recommendations, if any, for the

implementation of a program of such standards (including estimates

of the costs and time requirements of implementing such a program).

The cost of the study shall be paid out of any funds otherwise

available to defray the expenses of the Commission.”

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