USC THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – 1776 01/03/2007
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – 1776
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – 1776
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – 1776 (!1)
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776
THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and
equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they
should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,_That
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its
powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes;
and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more
disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves
by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object
evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their
right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide
new Guards for their future security._Such has been the patient
sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which
constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history
of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries
and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an
absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be
submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary
for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should
be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and
formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distance from the depository of their public Records,
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of
invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that
purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing
to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the
conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of
Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the
Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to
the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to
our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to
their acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging
its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument
for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested
with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his
Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and
destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to
compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most
barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas
to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their
friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured
to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian
Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction
of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in
the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by
repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We
have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to
extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of
the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have
appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured
them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations,
which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We
must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our
Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in
War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in
General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world
for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority
of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That
these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent
State; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown,
and that all political connection between them and the State of Great
Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and
Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace,
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and
Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of
this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and
our sacred Honor.
Robt. Treat Paine,
Charles Carroll of
Thos. Nelson, jr.,
Richard Henry Lee,
Thomas Lynch, Junr.,
Note – Mr. Ferdinand Jefferson, Keeper of the Rolls in the Department of
State, at Washington, says: “The names of the signers are spelt above
as in the fac-simile of the original, but the punctuation of them is not
always the same; neither do the names of the States appear in the fac-
simile of the original. The names of the signers of each State are
grouped together in the fac-simile of the original, except the name of
Matthew Thornton, which follows that of Oliver Wolcott.”
(!1)The delegates of the United Colonies of New Hampshire; Massachusetts
Bay; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; Connecticut; New York; New
Jersey; Pennsylvania; New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, in Delaware;
Maryland; Virginia; North Carolina, and South Carolina, In Congress
assembled at Philadelphia, Resolved on the 10th of May, 1776, to
recommend to the respective assemblies and conventions of the United
Colonies, where no government sufficient to the exigencies of their
affairs had been established, to adopt such a government as should, in
the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce to the
happiness and safety of their constituents in particular, and of America
in general. A preamble to this resolution, agreed to on the 15th of May,
stated the intention to be totally to suppress the exercise of every
kind of authority under the British crown. On the 7th of June, certain
resolutions respecting independency were moved and seconded. On the 10th
of June it was resolved, that a committee should be appointed to prepare
a declaration to the following effect: “That the United Colonies are,
and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are
absolved from all allegiance to the British crown; and that all
political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and
ought to be, totally dissolved.” On the preceding day it was determined
that the committee for preparing the declaration should consist of five,
and they were chosen accordingly, in the following order: Mr. Jefferson,
Mr. J. Adams, Mr. Franklin, Mr. Sherman, Mr. R. R. Livingston. On the
11th of June a resolution was passed to appoint a committee to prepare
and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between the
colonies, and another committee to prepare a plan of treaties to be
proposed to foreign powers. On the 12th of June, it was resolved, that a
committee of Congress should be appointed by the name of a board of war
and ordnance, to consist of five members. On the 25th of June, a
declaration of the deputies of Pennsylvania, met in provincial
conference, expressing their willingness to concur in a vote declaring
the United Colonies free and independent States, was laid before
Congress and read. On the 28th of June, the committee appointed to
prepare a declaration of independence brought in a draught, which was
read, and ordered to lie on the table. On the 1st of July, a resolution
of the convention of Maryland, passed the 28th of June, authorizing the
deputies of that colony to concur in declaring the United Colonies free
and independent States, was laid before Congress and read. On the same
day Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into
consideration the resolution respecting independency. On the 2d of July,
a resolution declaring the colonies free and independent States, was
adopted. A declaration to that effect was, on the same and the following
days, taken into further consideration. Finally, on the 4th of July, the
Declaration of Independence was agreed to, engrossed on paper, signed by
John Hancock as president, and directed to be sent to the several
assemblies, conventions, and committees, or councils of safety, and to
the several commanding officers of the continental troops, and to be
proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head of the Army. It
was also ordered to be entered upon the Journals of Congress, and on the
2d of August, a copy engrossed on parchment was signed by all but one of
the fifty-six signers whose names are appended to it. That one was
Matthew Thornton, of New Hampshire, who on taking his seat in November
asked and obtained the privilege of signing it. Several who signed it on
the 2d of August were absent when it was adopted on the 4th of July,
but, approving of it, they thus signified their approbation.
Note – The proof of this document, as published above, was read by Mr.
Ferdinand Jefferson, the Keeper of the Rolls at the Department of State,
at Washington, who compared it with the fac-simile of the original in
his custody. He says: “In the fac-simile, as in the original, the whole
instrument runs on without a break, but dashes are mostly inserted. I
have, in this copy, followed the arrangement of paragraphs adopted in
the publication of the Declaration in the newspaper of John Dunlap, and
as printed by him for the Congress, which printed copy is inserted in
the original Journal of the old Congress. The same paragraphs are also
made by the author, in the original draught preserved in the Department