When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one

people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with

another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and

equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle

them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they

should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created

equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable

Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,

deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,_That

whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is

the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new

Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its

powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their

Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments

long established should not be changed for light and transient causes;

and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more

disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves

by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long

train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object

evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their

right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide

new Guards for their future security._Such has been the patient

sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which

constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history

of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries

and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an

absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be

submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary

for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing

importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should

be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend

to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large

districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of

Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and

formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,

uncomfortable, and distance from the depository of their public Records,

for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his


He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with

manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause

others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of

Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;

the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of

invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that

purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing

to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the

conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his

Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of

their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of

Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the

Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to

the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to

our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to

their acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders

which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring

Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging

its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument

for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and

altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested

with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his

Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and

destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to

compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with

circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most

barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas

to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their

friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured

to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian

Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction

of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in

the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by

repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act

which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We

have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to

extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of

the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have

appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured

them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations,

which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We

must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our

Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in

War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in

General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world

for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority

of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That

these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent

State; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown,

and that all political connection between them and the State of Great

Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and

Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace,

contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and

Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of

this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine

Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and

our sacred Honor.


New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett,

Matthew Thornton.

Wm. Whipple,

Massachusetts Bay

Saml. Adams,

Robt. Treat Paine,

John Adams,

Elbridge Gerry.

Rhode Island

Step. Hopkins,

William Ellery.


Roger Sherman,

Wm. Williams,

Sam’el Huntington,

Oliver Wolcott.

New York

Wm. Floyd,

Frans. Lewis,

Phil. Livingston,

Lewis Morris.

New Jersey

Richd. Stockton,

John Hart,

Jno. Witherspoon,

Abra. Clark.

Fras. Hopkinson,


Robt. Morris,

Jas. Smith,

Benjamin Rush,

Geo. Taylor,

Benja. Franklin,

James Wilson,

John Morton,

Geo. Ross.

Geo. Clymer,


Caesar Rodney,

Tho. M’Kean.

Geo. Read,


Samuel Chase,

Charles Carroll of

Wm. Paca,


Thos. Stone,


George Wythe,

Thos. Nelson, jr.,

Richard Henry Lee,

Francis Lightfoot

Th. Jefferson,


Benja. Harrison,

Carter Braxton.

North Carolina

Wm. Hooper,

John Penn.

Joseph Hewes,

South Carolina

Thos. Heyward,

Thomas Lynch, Junr.,


Arthur Middleton.

Edward Rutledge,


Button Gwinnett,

Geo. Walton.

Lyman Hall,

Note – Mr. Ferdinand Jefferson, Keeper of the Rolls in the Department of

State, at Washington, says: “The names of the signers are spelt above

as in the fac-simile of the original, but the punctuation of them is not

always the same; neither do the names of the States appear in the fac-

simile of the original. The names of the signers of each State are

grouped together in the fac-simile of the original, except the name of

Matthew Thornton, which follows that of Oliver Wolcott.”


(!1)The delegates of the United Colonies of New Hampshire; Massachusetts

Bay; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; Connecticut; New York; New

Jersey; Pennsylvania; New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, in Delaware;

Maryland; Virginia; North Carolina, and South Carolina, In Congress

assembled at Philadelphia, Resolved on the 10th of May, 1776, to

recommend to the respective assemblies and conventions of the United

Colonies, where no government sufficient to the exigencies of their

affairs had been established, to adopt such a government as should, in

the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce to the

happiness and safety of their constituents in particular, and of America

in general. A preamble to this resolution, agreed to on the 15th of May,

stated the intention to be totally to suppress the exercise of every

kind of authority under the British crown. On the 7th of June, certain

resolutions respecting independency were moved and seconded. On the 10th

of June it was resolved, that a committee should be appointed to prepare

a declaration to the following effect: “That the United Colonies are,

and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are

absolved from all allegiance to the British crown; and that all

political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and

ought to be, totally dissolved.” On the preceding day it was determined

that the committee for preparing the declaration should consist of five,

and they were chosen accordingly, in the following order: Mr. Jefferson,

Mr. J. Adams, Mr. Franklin, Mr. Sherman, Mr. R. R. Livingston. On the

11th of June a resolution was passed to appoint a committee to prepare

and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between the

colonies, and another committee to prepare a plan of treaties to be

proposed to foreign powers. On the 12th of June, it was resolved, that a

committee of Congress should be appointed by the name of a board of war

and ordnance, to consist of five members. On the 25th of June, a

declaration of the deputies of Pennsylvania, met in provincial

conference, expressing their willingness to concur in a vote declaring

the United Colonies free and independent States, was laid before

Congress and read. On the 28th of June, the committee appointed to

prepare a declaration of independence brought in a draught, which was

read, and ordered to lie on the table. On the 1st of July, a resolution

of the convention of Maryland, passed the 28th of June, authorizing the

deputies of that colony to concur in declaring the United Colonies free

and independent States, was laid before Congress and read. On the same

day Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into

consideration the resolution respecting independency. On the 2d of July,

a resolution declaring the colonies free and independent States, was

adopted. A declaration to that effect was, on the same and the following

days, taken into further consideration. Finally, on the 4th of July, the

Declaration of Independence was agreed to, engrossed on paper, signed by

John Hancock as president, and directed to be sent to the several

assemblies, conventions, and committees, or councils of safety, and to

the several commanding officers of the continental troops, and to be

proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head of the Army. It

was also ordered to be entered upon the Journals of Congress, and on the

2d of August, a copy engrossed on parchment was signed by all but one of

the fifty-six signers whose names are appended to it. That one was

Matthew Thornton, of New Hampshire, who on taking his seat in November

asked and obtained the privilege of signing it. Several who signed it on

the 2d of August were absent when it was adopted on the 4th of July,

but, approving of it, they thus signified their approbation.

Note – The proof of this document, as published above, was read by Mr.

Ferdinand Jefferson, the Keeper of the Rolls at the Department of State,

at Washington, who compared it with the fac-simile of the original in

his custody. He says: “In the fac-simile, as in the original, the whole

instrument runs on without a break, but dashes are mostly inserted. I

have, in this copy, followed the arrangement of paragraphs adopted in

the publication of the Declaration in the newspaper of John Dunlap, and

as printed by him for the Congress, which printed copy is inserted in

the original Journal of the old Congress. The same paragraphs are also

made by the author, in the original draught preserved in the Department

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