أرشيف الوسم: اتفاقيات و معاهدات دولية

اتفاقيات و معاهدات دولية

النظام الأساسي لمفوضية الأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين

النظام الأساسي لمفوضية الأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين

اعتمدته الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة بموجب قرارها 428 (د-5) المؤرخ في 14 كانون الأول/ديسمبر 1950

 

الفصل الأول: أحكام عامة

1. يتولى مفوض الأمم المتحدة السامي لشؤون اللاجئين، تحت سلطة الجمعية العامة، مهمة تأمين حماية دولية، تحت رعاية الأمم المتحدة، للاجئين الذين تشملهم أحكام هذا النظام الأساسي، ومهمة التماس حلول دائمة لمشكلة اللاجئين بمساعدته الحكومات، وكذلك الهيئات الخاصة إذا وافقت علي ذلك الحكومات المعنية، علي تسهيل إعادة هؤلاء اللاجئين إلي أوطانهم بمحض اختيارهم أو استيعابهم في مجتمعات وطنية جديدة.
وعلي المفوض السامي في اضطلاعه بمهامه، وبوجه أخص عند بروز مصاعب، لا سيما فيما يتعلق بأية اعتراضات تتصل بالوضع الدولي لهؤلاء الأشخاص، أن يطلب رأي اللجنة الاستشارية لشؤون اللاجئين إذا تم إنشاؤها.

2. ليس لعمل المفوض السامي أية سمة سياسية، بل هو عمل إنساني واجتماعي، القاعدة فيه أن يعالج شؤون مجموعات وفئات من اللاجئين.

3. يمتثل المفوض السامي توجيهات السياسة العامة التي يتلقاها من الجمعية العامة أو من المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي.

4. للمجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي أن يقرر، بعد الاستماع إلي رأي المفوض السامي حول الموضوع، إنشاء لجنة استشارية لشؤون اللاجئين تتألف من ممثلي دول أعضاء وغير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة، يختارهم علي أساس ما عرف عنهم من اهتمام بمشكلة اللاجئين ومن تفان في العمل لحل هذه المشكلة.

5. تقوم الجمعية العامة، في موعد لا يتجاوز دورتها العادية الثامنة، باستعراض الترتيبات الخاصة بمفوضية شؤون اللاجئين للبت في أمر تجديد ولايتها بعد 31 كانون الأول/ديسمبر 1963.

الفصل الثاني: وظائف المفوض السامي

6. تشمل ولاية المقوض السامي:

ألف- 1. أي شخص اعتبر لاجئا بمقتضى الترتيبين المؤرخين في 12 أيار/مايو 1926 و 30 حزيران/يونيه 1928، أو بمقتضى الاتفاقيتين المؤرختين في 28 تشرين الأول/أكتوبر 1933 و 10 شباط/فبراير 1938، أو بمقتضى البروتوكول المؤرخ في 14 أيلول/سبتمبر 1939، أو بمقتضى دستور المنظمة الدولية للاجئين،

2. أي شخص يوجد، نتيجة لأحداث وقعت قبل 1 كانون الثاني/يناير 1951 وبسبب خوف له ما يبرره من التعرض للاضطهاد بسبب عرقه أو دينه أو جنسيته أو آرائه السياسية، خارج بلد جنسيته ولا يستطيع، أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف أو لدواع أخري غير راحته الشخصية، أن يستظل بحماية هذا البلد أو أي شخص يكون بلا جنسية ويوجد خارج بلد إقامته المعتادة السابق ولا يستطيع أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف أو لدواع أخري غير راحته الشخصية، أن يعود إلي ذلك البلد.
ولا يحول ما اتخذته المنظمة الدولية للاجئين أثناء ولايتها من مقررات بصدد الأهلية لصفة اللاجئ دون منح هذه الصفة لمن تتوفر فيهم الشروط المنصوص عليها في هذه الفقرة. يتوقف المفوض السامي عن ممارسة اختصاصه بالنسبة لأي شخص من أولئك الذين تتناولهم الفقرة ألف من هذه المادة، في الحالات التالية:

  • (أ) إذا عاد هذا الشخص من جديد، باختياره، إلي الاستظلال بحماية البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو
    (ب) إذا كان قد فقد جنسيته ولكنه عاد باختياره إلي اكتسابها مجددا، أو
    (ج) إذا اكتسب جنسية جديدة وأصبح يتمتع بحماية بلد جنسيته الجديدة، أو
    (د) إذا عاد، باختياره، إلي الاستقرار مجددا في البلد الذي غادره أو الذي بقي خارجه بسبب خوفه من الاضطهاد، أو
    (هـ) إذا لم يعد، بعد أن زالت الظروف التي اعترف به بسببها بصفة لاجئ، قادرا علي تقديم أية مبررات لمواصلته رفض طلب الاستظلال بحماية البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته غير دواعي راحته الشخصية، علما بأنه لا يجوز له التذرع بأسباب ذات طابع اقتصادي بحت، أو
    (و) إذا كان شخصا عديم الجنسية ولم يعد، بعد أن زالت الظروف التي اعترف له من أجلها بصفة لاجئ وأصبح يستطيع العودة إلي بلد إقامته المعتاد السابق، قادرا علي تقديم أية مبررات لمواصلته رفض العودة إلي البلد المذكور غير دواعي راحته الشخصية.

باء– أي شخص آخر يكون، بسبب خوفه الراهن أو السابق، الذي له ما يبرره، من التعرض للاضطهاد بسبب عرقه أو دينه أو جنسيته أو آرائه السياسية، موجودا خارج البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو خارج بلد إقامته الاعتيادية السابق إذا كان عديم الجنسية، ولا يستطيع، أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف، أن يطلب الاستظلال بحماية حكومة البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو أن يعود إلي بلد إقامته المعتادة السابق إذا كان عديم الجنسية.

7. لا تشمل ولاية المفوض السامي، كما عرفت في المادة 6 أعلاه، أي شخص:

  • (أ) يحمل جنسية أكثر من بلد واحد، ما لم تتوفر فيه الشروط المبينة في المادة السابقة بالنسبة إلي كل بلد يحمل جنسيته، أو
    (ب) تعترف له السلطات المختصة في البلد الذي اتخذه لإقامته بذات الحقوق وذات الواجبات التي تنجم عن التمتع بجنسية هذا البلد، أو
    (ج) يواصل التمتع بحماية أو مساعدة هيئات أو وكالات أخري تابعة للأمم المتحدة، أو
    (د) تكون هناك دواع جدية للاعتقاد بأنه ارتكب جرما تنطبق عليه أحكام معاهدات تسليم المجرمين، أو جريمة مذكورة في المادة السادسة من النظام الأساسي للمحكمة العسكرية الدولية الذي تم إقراره في لندن أو مذكورة في أحكام الفقرة 2 من المادة 14 من الإعلان العالمي لحقوق الإنسان.

8. يسهر المفوض السامي علي توفير الحماية للاجئين الذين تشملهم اختصاصات المفوضية:

  • (أ) بالعمل علي عقد وتصديق اتفاقيات دولية لحماية اللاجئين، والإشراف علي تطبيقها واقتراح إدخال تعديلات عليها،
    (ب) بالعمل، عن طريق اتفاقات خاصة مع الحكومات، علي تنفيذ أية تدابير ترمي إلي تحسين أحوال اللاجئين وإلي خفض عدد الذين يحتاجون إلي حماية،
    (ج) بمؤازرة الجهود الحكومية والخاصة الرامية إلي تيسير عودة اللاجئين باختيارهم إلي أوطانهم، أو اندماجهم في مجتمعات وطنية جديدة،
    (د) بتشجيع قبول اللاجئين علي أراضي الدول دون استثناء أولئك المنتمين إلي أكثر الفئات عوزا،
    (هـ) بالسعي إلي الحصول علي ترخيص للاجئين بنقل أصولهم، وخاصة منه ما يحتاجون إليه للاستقرار في بلد آخر،
    (و) بالحصول من الحكومات علي معلومات بشأن عدد اللاجئين الموجودين علي أراضيها والأوضاع التي يعيشون فيها، وبشأن القوانين والأنظمة المتعلقة بهم،
    (ز) بالبقاء علي اتصال وثيق بالحكومات والمنظمات الحكومية الدولية المعنية،
    (ح) بإقامة علاقات، بالطريقة التي يراها أفضل، مع المنظمات الخاصة المعنية بشؤون اللاجئين،
    (ط) بتيسير التنسيق بين جهود المنظمات الخاصة المهتمة برفاه اللاجئين.

9. يتولى المفوض السامي أية مهام إضافية تقرر الجمعية العامة تكليفه بها، بما في ذلك إعادة اللاجئين إلي أوطانهم وإعادة استقرارهم في بلد آخر، في حدود الموارد الموضوعة تحت تصرفه.

10. يتولى المفوض السامي إدارة أية أموال عامة أو خاصة يتلقاها من أجل مساعدة اللاجئين، ويقوم بتوزيعها علي الهيئات الخاصة، وكذلك عند اللزوم علي الهيئات العامة، التي يعتبرها الأكثر أهلية لتأمين هذه المساعدة.
للمفوض السامي أن يرفض أي عرض لا يعتبره سليما أو لا يمكن الانتفاع به.
ليس للمفوض السامي أن يوجه نداء إلي الحكومات طلبا للأموال أو أن يوجه نداء عاما دون موافقة مسبقة من الجمعية العامة.
وعلي المفوض السامي أن يضمن تقريره السنوي بيانا بنشاطه في هذا الميدان.

11. للمفوض السامي حق عرض آرائه أمام الجمعية العامة والمجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي وأجهزتهما الفرعية. يرفع المفوض السامي، عن طريق المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي، تقريرا سنويا إلي الجمعية العامة. ويتم النظر في هذا التقرير كبند مستقل من بنود جدول أعمال الجمعية العامة.
12. للمفوض السامي أن يطلب مؤازرة مختلف الوكالات المختصة.

الفصل الثالث: الشؤون التنظيمية والمالية

13. ينتخب المفوض السامي من قبل الجمعية العامة، بناء علي ترشيح من الأمين العام، ويقترح الأمين العام أحكام تعيين المفوض السامي وتوافق عليها الجمعية العامة. ويكون انتخاب المفوض السامي لمدة ثلاث سنوات، اعتبارا من أول كانون الثاني/يناير 1951.

14. يعين المفوض السامي، للمدة ذاتها، مفوضا ساميا مساعدا من غير جنسيته.

15. (أ) يقوم المفوض السامي، في حدود الاعتمادات المخصصة له في الميزانية، بتعيين موظفي المفوضية، الذين يكونون مسؤولين أمامه عن أدائهم لمهامهم.
(ب) يختار هؤلاء الموظفين من بين الأشخاص المخلصين للأهداف التي تعمل لها المفوضية،
(ج) تخضع شروط عمل هؤلاء الموظفين لأحكام نظام الموظفين الأساسي المعتمد من قبل الجمعية العامة وللقواعد التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذا النظام الأساسي،
(د) يجوز أيضا وضع أحكام تسمح باستخدام موظفين متطوعين،

16. يستشير المفوض السامي حكومات البلدان التي يقيم فيها لاجئون بشأن الحاجة إلي تعيين ممثلين له في هذه البلدان، وللمفوض السامي أن يعين، في أي بلد يقر بوجود مثل هذه الحاجة، ممثلا له توافق عليه حكومة هذا البلد. ويجوز للمفوض السامي، رهنا بالأحكام السابقة الذكر، أن يكلف الشخص الواحد بتمثله في أكثر من بلد واحد.

17. يتخذ المفوض السامي والأمين العام الترتيبات المناسبة بشأن الاتصال والتشاور بينهما حول المسائل ذات الاهتمام المشترك.

18. يمد الأمين العام المفوض السامي بجميع التسهيلات الضرورية في الحدود المقررة في الميزانية.

19. يكون مقر المفوضية في حنيف، سويسرا،

20. تمول المفوضية من ميزانية الأمم المتحدة، ولا يجوز، إلا إذا قررت الجمعية العامة خلاف ذلك مستقبلا، أن تقيد علي ميزانية الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة غير النفقات الإدارية المتعلقة بعمل المفوضية، ويتم تمويل جميع النفقات الأخرى المتصلة بنشاط المفوض السامي عن طريق التبرعات.

21. تخضع إدارة المفوضية لأحكام اللائحة المالية للأمم المتحدة وللقواعد المالية التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذه اللائحة.

22. تخضع الحسابات المتعلقة بالأموال الموضوعة تحت تصرف المفوض السامي لمراقبة مجلس مدققي حسابات الأمم المتحدة، علما بأنه يجوز لهذا المجلس أن يقبل الحسابات المدققة التي تقدمها الهيئات التي تلقت مخصصات مالية. ويتفق المفوض السامي والأمين العام علي الترتيبات الإدارية لعهدة هذه الأموال وتخصيصها، بما يتفق وأحكام اللائحة المالية للأمم المتحدة والقواعد التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذه اللائحة.

النظام الأساسي لمفوضية الأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين

النظام الأساسي لمفوضية الأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين

اعتمدته الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة بموجب قرارها 428 (د-5) المؤرخ في 14 كانون الأول/ديسمبر 1950

الفصل الأول: أحكام عامة


1. يتولى مفوض الأمم المتحدة السامي لشؤون اللاجئين، تحت سلطة الجمعية العامة، مهمة تأمين حماية دولية، تحت رعاية الأمم المتحدة، للاجئين الذين تشملهم أحكام هذا النظام الأساسي، ومهمة التماس حلول دائمة لمشكلة اللاجئين بمساعدته الحكومات، وكذلك الهيئات الخاصة إذا وافقت علي ذلك الحكومات المعنية، علي تسهيل إعادة هؤلاء اللاجئين إلي أوطانهم بمحض اختيارهم أو استيعابهم في مجتمعات وطنية جديدة.
وعلي المفوض السامي في اضطلاعه بمهامه، وبوجه أخص عند بروز مصاعب، لا سيما فيما يتعلق بأية اعتراضات تتصل بالوضع الدولي لهؤلاء الأشخاص، أن يطلب رأي اللجنة الاستشارية لشؤون اللاجئين إذا تم إنشاؤها.

2. ليس لعمل المفوض السامي أية سمة سياسية، بل هو عمل إنساني واجتماعي، القاعدة فيه أن يعالج شؤون مجموعات وفئات من اللاجئين.

3. يمتثل المفوض السامي توجيهات السياسة العامة التي يتلقاها من الجمعية العامة أو من المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي.

4. للمجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي أن يقرر، بعد الاستماع إلي رأي المفوض السامي حول الموضوع، إنشاء لجنة استشارية لشؤون اللاجئين تتألف من ممثلي دول أعضاء وغير أعضاء في الأمم المتحدة، يختارهم علي أساس ما عرف عنهم من اهتمام بمشكلة اللاجئين ومن تفان في العمل لحل هذه المشكلة.

5. تقوم الجمعية العامة، في موعد لا يتجاوز دورتها العادية الثامنة، باستعراض الترتيبات الخاصة بمفوضية شؤون اللاجئين للبت في أمر تجديد ولايتها بعد 31 كانون الأول/ديسمبر 1963.

الفصل الثاني: وظائف المفوض السامي

6. تشمل ولاية المقوض السامي:

ألف- 1. أي شخص اعتبر لاجئا بمقتضى الترتيبين المؤرخين في 12 أيار/مايو 1926 و 30 حزيران/يونيه 1928، أو بمقتضى الاتفاقيتين المؤرختين في 28 تشرين الأول/أكتوبر 1933 و 10 شباط/فبراير 1938، أو بمقتضى البروتوكول المؤرخ في 14 أيلول/سبتمبر 1939، أو بمقتضى دستور المنظمة الدولية للاجئين،

2. أي شخص يوجد، نتيجة لأحداث وقعت قبل 1 كانون الثاني/يناير 1951 وبسبب خوف له ما يبرره من التعرض للاضطهاد بسبب عرقه أو دينه أو جنسيته أو آرائه السياسية، خارج بلد جنسيته ولا يستطيع، أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف أو لدواع أخري غير راحته الشخصية، أن يستظل بحماية هذا البلد أو أي شخص يكون بلا جنسية ويوجد خارج بلد إقامته المعتادة السابق ولا يستطيع أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف أو لدواع أخري غير راحته الشخصية، أن يعود إلي ذلك البلد.
ولا يحول ما اتخذته المنظمة الدولية للاجئين أثناء ولايتها من مقررات بصدد الأهلية لصفة اللاجئ دون منح هذه الصفة لمن تتوفر فيهم الشروط المنصوص عليها في هذه الفقرة. يتوقف المفوض السامي عن ممارسة اختصاصه بالنسبة لأي شخص من أولئك الذين تتناولهم الفقرة ألف من هذه المادة، في الحالات التالية:

  • (أ) إذا عاد هذا الشخص من جديد، باختياره، إلي الاستظلال بحماية البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو
    (ب) إذا كان قد فقد جنسيته ولكنه عاد باختياره إلي اكتسابها مجددا، أو
    (ج) إذا اكتسب جنسية جديدة وأصبح يتمتع بحماية بلد جنسيته الجديدة، أو
    (د) إذا عاد، باختياره، إلي الاستقرار مجددا في البلد الذي غادره أو الذي بقي خارجه بسبب خوفه من الاضطهاد، أو
    (هـ) إذا لم يعد، بعد أن زالت الظروف التي اعترف به بسببها بصفة لاجئ، قادرا علي تقديم أية مبررات لمواصلته رفض طلب الاستظلال بحماية البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته غير دواعي راحته الشخصية، علما بأنه لا يجوز له التذرع بأسباب ذات طابع اقتصادي بحت، أو
    (و) إذا كان شخصا عديم الجنسية ولم يعد، بعد أن زالت الظروف التي اعترف له من أجلها بصفة لاجئ وأصبح يستطيع العودة إلي بلد إقامته المعتاد السابق، قادرا علي تقديم أية مبررات لمواصلته رفض العودة إلي البلد المذكور غير دواعي راحته الشخصية.

باء– أي شخص آخر يكون، بسبب خوفه الراهن أو السابق، الذي له ما يبرره، من التعرض للاضطهاد بسبب عرقه أو دينه أو جنسيته أو آرائه السياسية، موجودا خارج البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو خارج بلد إقامته الاعتيادية السابق إذا كان عديم الجنسية، ولا يستطيع، أو لا يريد بسبب ذلك الخوف، أن يطلب الاستظلال بحماية حكومة البلد الذي يحمل جنسيته، أو أن يعود إلي بلد إقامته المعتادة السابق إذا كان عديم الجنسية.

7. لا تشمل ولاية المفوض السامي، كما عرفت في المادة 6 أعلاه، أي شخص:

  • (أ) يحمل جنسية أكثر من بلد واحد، ما لم تتوفر فيه الشروط المبينة في المادة السابقة بالنسبة إلي كل بلد يحمل جنسيته، أو
    (ب) تعترف له السلطات المختصة في البلد الذي اتخذه لإقامته بذات الحقوق وذات الواجبات التي تنجم عن التمتع بجنسية هذا البلد، أو
    (ج) يواصل التمتع بحماية أو مساعدة هيئات أو وكالات أخري تابعة للأمم المتحدة، أو
    (د) تكون هناك دواع جدية للاعتقاد بأنه ارتكب جرما تنطبق عليه أحكام معاهدات تسليم المجرمين، أو جريمة مذكورة في المادة السادسة من النظام الأساسي للمحكمة العسكرية الدولية الذي تم إقراره في لندن أو مذكورة في أحكام الفقرة 2 من المادة 14 من الإعلان العالمي لحقوق الإنسان.

8. يسهر المفوض السامي علي توفير الحماية للاجئين الذين تشملهم اختصاصات المفوضية:

  • (أ) بالعمل علي عقد وتصديق اتفاقيات دولية لحماية اللاجئين، والإشراف علي تطبيقها واقتراح إدخال تعديلات عليها،
    (ب) بالعمل، عن طريق اتفاقات خاصة مع الحكومات، علي تنفيذ أية تدابير ترمي إلي تحسين أحوال اللاجئين وإلي خفض عدد الذين يحتاجون إلي حماية،
    (ج) بمؤازرة الجهود الحكومية والخاصة الرامية إلي تيسير عودة اللاجئين باختيارهم إلي أوطانهم، أو اندماجهم في مجتمعات وطنية جديدة،
    (د) بتشجيع قبول اللاجئين علي أراضي الدول دون استثناء أولئك المنتمين إلي أكثر الفئات عوزا،
    (هـ) بالسعي إلي الحصول علي ترخيص للاجئين بنقل أصولهم، وخاصة منه ما يحتاجون إليه للاستقرار في بلد آخر،
    (و) بالحصول من الحكومات علي معلومات بشأن عدد اللاجئين الموجودين علي أراضيها والأوضاع التي يعيشون فيها، وبشأن القوانين والأنظمة المتعلقة بهم،
    (ز) بالبقاء علي اتصال وثيق بالحكومات والمنظمات الحكومية الدولية المعنية،
    (ح) بإقامة علاقات، بالطريقة التي يراها أفضل، مع المنظمات الخاصة المعنية بشؤون اللاجئين،
    (ط) بتيسير التنسيق بين جهود المنظمات الخاصة المهتمة برفاه اللاجئين.

9. يتولى المفوض السامي أية مهام إضافية تقرر الجمعية العامة تكليفه بها، بما في ذلك إعادة اللاجئين إلي أوطانهم وإعادة استقرارهم في بلد آخر، في حدود الموارد الموضوعة تحت تصرفه.

10. يتولى المفوض السامي إدارة أية أموال عامة أو خاصة يتلقاها من أجل مساعدة اللاجئين، ويقوم بتوزيعها علي الهيئات الخاصة، وكذلك عند اللزوم علي الهيئات العامة، التي يعتبرها الأكثر أهلية لتأمين هذه المساعدة.
للمفوض السامي أن يرفض أي عرض لا يعتبره سليما أو لا يمكن الانتفاع به.
ليس للمفوض السامي أن يوجه نداء إلي الحكومات طلبا للأموال أو أن يوجه نداء عاما دون موافقة مسبقة من الجمعية العامة.
وعلي المفوض السامي أن يضمن تقريره السنوي بيانا بنشاطه في هذا الميدان.

11. للمفوض السامي حق عرض آرائه أمام الجمعية العامة والمجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي وأجهزتهما الفرعية. يرفع المفوض السامي، عن طريق المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي، تقريرا سنويا إلي الجمعية العامة. ويتم النظر في هذا التقرير كبند مستقل من بنود جدول أعمال الجمعية العامة.
12. للمفوض السامي أن يطلب مؤازرة مختلف الوكالات المختصة.

الفصل الثالث: الشؤون التنظيمية والمالية

13. ينتخب المفوض السامي من قبل الجمعية العامة، بناء علي ترشيح من الأمين العام، ويقترح الأمين العام أحكام تعيين المفوض السامي وتوافق عليها الجمعية العامة. ويكون انتخاب المفوض السامي لمدة ثلاث سنوات، اعتبارا من أول كانون الثاني/يناير 1951.

14. يعين المفوض السامي، للمدة ذاتها، مفوضا ساميا مساعدا من غير جنسيته.

15. (أ) يقوم المفوض السامي، في حدود الاعتمادات المخصصة له في الميزانية، بتعيين موظفي المفوضية، الذين يكونون مسؤولين أمامه عن أدائهم لمهامهم.
(ب) يختار هؤلاء الموظفين من بين الأشخاص المخلصين للأهداف التي تعمل لها المفوضية،
(ج) تخضع شروط عمل هؤلاء الموظفين لأحكام نظام الموظفين الأساسي المعتمد من قبل الجمعية العامة وللقواعد التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذا النظام الأساسي،
(د) يجوز أيضا وضع أحكام تسمح باستخدام موظفين متطوعين،

16. يستشير المفوض السامي حكومات البلدان التي يقيم فيها لاجئون بشأن الحاجة إلي تعيين ممثلين له في هذه البلدان، وللمفوض السامي أن يعين، في أي بلد يقر بوجود مثل هذه الحاجة، ممثلا له توافق عليه حكومة هذا البلد. ويجوز للمفوض السامي، رهنا بالأحكام السابقة الذكر، أن يكلف الشخص الواحد بتمثله في أكثر من بلد واحد.

17. يتخذ المفوض السامي والأمين العام الترتيبات المناسبة بشأن الاتصال والتشاور بينهما حول المسائل ذات الاهتمام المشترك.

18. يمد الأمين العام المفوض السامي بجميع التسهيلات الضرورية في الحدود المقررة في الميزانية.

19. يكون مقر المفوضية في حنيف، سويسرا،

20. تمول المفوضية من ميزانية الأمم المتحدة، ولا يجوز، إلا إذا قررت الجمعية العامة خلاف ذلك مستقبلا، أن تقيد علي ميزانية الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة غير النفقات الإدارية المتعلقة بعمل المفوضية، ويتم تمويل جميع النفقات الأخرى المتصلة بنشاط المفوض السامي عن طريق التبرعات.

21. تخضع إدارة المفوضية لأحكام اللائحة المالية للأمم المتحدة وللقواعد المالية التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذه اللائحة.

22. تخضع الحسابات المتعلقة بالأموال الموضوعة تحت تصرف المفوض السامي لمراقبة مجلس مدققي حسابات الأمم المتحدة، علما بأنه يجوز لهذا المجلس أن يقبل الحسابات المدققة التي تقدمها الهيئات التي تلقت مخصصات مالية. ويتفق المفوض السامي والأمين العام علي الترتيبات الإدارية لعهدة هذه الأموال وتخصيصها، بما يتفق وأحكام اللائحة المالية للأمم المتحدة والقواعد التي يصدرها الأمين العام تطبيقا لهذه اللائحة.

إتفاقية نيويورك لعام 1958 بشأن الآعتراف وتنفيذ أحكام المحكمين الأجنبية

  • إتفاقية نيويورك لعام 1958 بشأن الآعتراف وتنفيذ أحكام المحكمين الأجنبية

    صدرت الإرادة الملكية السامية بالموافقة على قرار مجلس الوزراء رقم 6678 تاريخ 8/7/1979 المتضمن الموافقة على تصديق اتفاقية نيويورك المتعلقة بقرارات التحكيم الأجنبية وتنفيذها
    ميثــاق
    حول الاعتراف بقرارات التحكيم الأجنبية وتنفيذها
    ( تمت الموافقة على هذا الميثاق من قبل مؤتمر الأمم المتحدة المنعقد في نيويورك بتاريخ 10 حزيران سنة 1958 )
    المادة الأولى :
    1- ينطبق هذا الميثاق على الأمور التي تتناول الاعتراف بقرارات التحكيم الصادرة في الدول غير الدولة التي يراد تنفيذ تلك القرارات لديها ، والناشئة عن المنازعات القائمة بين الأفراد ، طبيعية كانت أم قانونية كما وينطبق أيضا على قرارات التحكيم التي لا تعتبر قرارات محلية لدى الدولة المراد تنفيذ تلك القرارات لديها
    2- أن عبارة ( قرارات التحكيم ) لا تشمل فقط القرارات التي يصدرها المحكمون المعينون للبت في القضايا الافرادية بل تشمل أيضا القرارات التي تصدرها هيئات التحكيم الدائمية التي يخضع لها الفرقاء
    3- لدى التوقيع على هذا الميثاق أو التصديق عليه أو التقيد بمضمونه أو الانضمام إليه بمقتضى أحكام المادة العاشرة منه ، يجوز لكل دولة على أساس المعاملة بالمثل أن تصرح بأنها ستطبق أحكام هذا الميثاق على الأمور المتعلقة بالاعتراف وبتنفيذ قرارات التحكيم الصادرة في أية دولة أخرى من الدول المتعاقد ، كما يجوز لها أن تصرح بأنها سوف تحصر تطبيق هذا الميثاق على المنازعات الناشئة عن العلاقات القانونية
    ( تعاقدية كانت أم غير تعاقدية ) والتي تعتبر بأنها ذات طابع تجاري بنظر القانون المحلي للدول التي تصدر مثل هذا التصريح
    المادة الثانية :
    1- على كل دولة من الدول المتعاقدة أن تعترف بالاتفاقيات الخطية التي يوافق الفرقاء فيها على أن يحيلوا إلى التحكيم أية منازعات تكون قد نشأت ( أو التي يمكن أن تنشأ) بينهم ويكون لها مساس بعلاقات قانونية محددة تعاقدية كانت أم غير تعاقدية وذلك فيما يتعلق بأي نزاع يمكن تسويته بطريق التحكيم
    2- تشمل عبارة ( الاتفاق الخطي) الفقرة التحكيمية الواردة في أي عقد ، أو أية اتفاقية للتحكيم موقع عليها من قبل الفرقاء ، أو التي من الممكن استنتاجها من التحارير أو البرقيات المتبادلة بين الفرقاء
    3- يتوجب على محكمة البلد المتعاقد التي تقام لديها قضية ذات علاقة باتفاقية معقودة بين الفرقاء ضمن منطوق هذه المادة ، أن تحيل ذلك النزاع إلى التحكيم وذلك بطلب من أحد الفرقاء : إلا إذا تبين للمحكمة بأن تلك الاتفاقية لاغية وباطلة ، أو أنها غير ملزمة ، أو أنه ليس في الإمكان تنفيذها
    المادة الثالثة :
    على كل دولة من الدول المتعاقدة أن تعترف بصحة قرارات التحكيم وتنفذها ، وذلك بمقتضى أصول المحاكمات المرعية الإجراء في البلد الذي يراد الاستناد إليها فيه ، وبمقتضى الشروط المبينة في المواد التالية ويجب أن لا تفرض على تنفيذ قرارات التحكيم التي ينطبق عليها هذا الميثاق أية شروط تكون أكثر قسوة (أو رسوم تكون أعلى ) من الشروط والرسوم المترتبة على تنفيذ قرارات التحكيم المحلية
    المادة الرابعة :
    1- من أجل الحصول على الاعتراف والتنفيذ المبحوث عنهما في المادة السابقة يتوجب على الفريق الذي يطلب مثل ذلك الاعتراف والتنفيذ أن يبرز ما يلي عند تقديمه الطلب :
    أ- قرار التحكيم الأصلي المصدق ، أو صورة مصدقة عنه
    ب- الاتفاقية الأصلية المبحوث عنها في المادة الثانية ، أو صورة مصدقة عنها
    2- إذا لم يكن قرار التحكيم أو الاتفاقية منظمين بالغة الرسمية للبلد المراد الاستناد إليهما فيه ، فيتوجب على الفريق الذي يطالب بالاعتراف بذلك القرار وتنفيه أن يبرز ترجمات لهذه المستندات بتلك اللغة ، ويتوجب المصادقة على تلك الترجمات من قبل مترجم محلف أو من قبل موظف دبلوماسي أو قنصلي
    المادة الخامسة :
    1- يجوز رفض طلب الاعتراف بقرار التحكيم وتنفيذه وذلك بناء على طلب المدعى عليه ، شريطة أن يقدم هذا الأخير إلى الجهة المقدم إليها ذلك الطلب إثباتا بما يلي :
    أ- أن الفرقاء في الاتفاقية المبحوث عنها في المادة الثانية كانوا فاقدي الأهلية بموجب القانون الذي تخضع إليه تلك الاتفاقية ، أو ( في حالة عدم وجود الدليل على ذلك ) بمقتضى قانون البلد الذي صدر فيه قرار التحكيم – أو
    ب- أن الفريق الذي صدر قرار التحكيم ضده لم يبلغ أي إشعار بتعيين المحكم ، أو بإجراءات التحكيم ، أو أنه كان غير قادر على عرض قضيته – أو
    ج- أن قرار التحكيم يبحث في نزاع خارج عن نطاق الشروط التي تم بموجبها إحالة ذلك النزاع إلى التحكيم ، أو أنه يتضمن قرارات حول أمور خارجة عن نطاق التحكيم : ويشترط في ذلك أنه إذا أمكن فصل الأمور التي كانت معروضة للتحكيم عن الأمور التي لم تكن معروضة للتحكيم ، فيجوز الاعتراف بذلك الجزء من القرار الذي يتناول الأمور التي كانت معروضة للتحكيم ،وتنفيذه
    د- أن تشكيل الهيئة التحكيمية ( أو أن إجراءات التحكيم ) لم تجر بموافقة الفرقاء أو في حالة عدم وجود موافقة كهذه فأن الإجراءات لم تكن متفقة مع قانون البلاد التي جرى فيها التحكيم
    هـ أن قرار التحكيم لم يكتسب بعد صفة الإلزام بحق الفرقاء ، أو أنه قد فسخ أو أوقف مفعوله من قبل هيئة ذات اختصاص ، أو بمقتضى أحكام القانون الساري المفعول في البلاد التي صدر فيها قرار التحكيم المذكور
    2- يمكن رفض الاعتراف بقرار التحكيم وتنفيذه إذا رأت السلطات في البلد المطلوب تنفيذ القرار فيه :
    أ- أن موضوع الخلاف لا يمكن حله بطريق التحكيم بموجب قوانين ذلك البلد أو
    ب- أن الاعتراف بذلك القرار وتنفيذه يناقض السياسة العامة لذلك البلد
    المادة السادسة :
    إذا قدم طلب لفسخ أو إيقاف العمل بقرار التحكيم إلى السلطة ذات الاختصاص بموجب المادة الخامسة الفقرة (أ) ، (هـ) فيجوز للمحكمة التي قدم إليها طلب تنفيذ قرار التحكيم ( إذا رأت من المناسب ) أن تؤجل إعطاء القرار بشأن تنفيذ قرار التحكيم ، كما ويمكنها بناء على طلب الفريق طالب التنفيذ ، أن تأمر بتقديم كفالة مناسبة
    المادة السابعة :
    1- أن نصوص الميثاق الحالي لا تؤثر على صحة الاتفاقيات المتعددة الأطراف أو على صحة الاتفاقيات الثنائية المتعلقة بتنفيذ قرارات التحكيم والتي تكون الدول المتعاقدة فرقاء فيها ، كما ولا تحرم أي فريق آخر ذا علاقة من حقه في الحصول على قرار تحكيم بالطريقة وإلى المدى المسموح به في القوانين أو المعاهدات المرعية الإجراء في البلد الذي يراد الاستناد إلى قرار التحكيم فيه
    2- لا ينطبق بروتوكول جنيف لسنة 1923 ولا ميثاق جنيف المتعلق بتنفيذ قرارات التحكيم الأجنبية لسنة 1927 على الدول المتعاقدة ،وذلك بمجرد التقيد بأحكام هذا الميثاق ،وإلى المدى الذي يتم فيه هذا التقيد
    المادة الثامنة :
    1- يبقى هذا الميثاق مفتوحا لغاية 31 كانون الأول 1958 للتوقيع عليه بالنيابة عن أي عضو من أعضاء هيئة الأمم المتحدة ، أو بالنيابة عن أية دولة أخرى تكون عضواً ( أو ستصبح عضوا) في أية وكالة متخصصة من وكالات هيئة الأمم المتحدة ، أو من الدول التي تشترك في عضوية محكمة العدل الدولية ، أو بالنيابة عناية دولة تكون قد وجهت إليها الدعوة من قبل الجمعية العامة لهيئة الأمم المتحدة
    2- يجري التصديق على هذا الميثاق ، وتودع وثائق التصديق لدى السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة
    المادة التاسعة :
    المادة التاسعة :
    1- يكون هذا الميثاق مفتوحا لانضمام كافة الدول المشار إليها في المادة الثامنة
    2- يتم الانضمام إلى هذا الميثاق بإيداع طلب الانضمام لدى السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة
    المادة العاشرة :
    1- يجوز لأية دولة حين توقيعها على هذا الميثاق ، أو حين التصديق عليه الانضمام إليه ، أن تعلن تمديد تطبيقه بحيث يشمل كافة المناطق الواقعة تحت إشرافها الدولي ويصبح مثل هذا الإعلان ساري المفعول اعتباراً من تاريخ تطبيق الميثاق على الدولة ذات العلاقة
    2- يمكن إجراء مثل هذا التمديد فيما بعد ،وذلك عن طريق إرسال إشعار بذلك إلى سكرتير عام هيئة الأمم المتحدة ، ويعتبر هذا الإجراء نافذ اعتبارا من اليوم التسعين الذي يلي اليوم الذي يتم فيه استلام الإشعار المبحوث عنه من قبل سكرتير عام هيئة الأمم المتحدة أو اعتبار من تاريخ تطبيق الميثاق لدى الدولة ذات العلاقة : أيهما يأتي ترتيبه أخيراً
    3- بالنسبة للبلدان التي لم يشملها هذا الميثاق عند التوقيع عليه أو تصديقه أو الانضمام إليه ، يتوجب على كل دولة أن تبحث إمكانية اتخاذ الإجراءات اللازمة لتمديد تطبيق هذا الميثاق على تلك المناطق شريطة الحصول على موافقة حكومات تلك المناطق ، إذا كان مثل هذا الإجراء ضروريا لأسباب دستورية
    المادة الحادية عشرة :
    تطبق الأحكام التالية على الدولة الاتحادية ( غير الوحدوية ) :
    أ- بالنسبة إلى مواد هذا الميثاق التي تدخل ضمن الصلاحيات التشريعية للدولة الاتحادية ، فأن التزامات الدولة الاتحادية يكون لها نفس المدى كالتزامات الدول المتعاقدة وغير الخاضعة إلى النظام الاتحادي
    ب- بالنسبة إلى مواد هذا الميثاق التي تدخل ضمن الصلاحيات التشريعية للولايات أو المقاطعات الأعضاء في الاتحاد والتي بحسب النظام الدستوري للاتحاد لا تكون ملزمة على اتخاذ إجراء تشريعي معين ، يتوجب على الحكومة الاتحادية أن تحيط السلطات ذات العلاقة في تلك الولايات أو المقاطعات علما بهذه المواد مشفوعة بالتوصيات اللازمة وذلك في أقرب وقت ممكن
    ج- يتوجب على الدولة الاتحادية المنضمة إلى هذا الميثاق ، بناء على طلب أية دولة من الدول المتعاقدة ( المبلغ إليها عن طريق السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة ، أن تبادر إلى تزويد تلك الدولة ببيان عن الوضع القانوني ، وعن التعامل المتبع في الاتحاد وفي الولايات التابعة له ، وذلك بالنسبة إلى نص معين من نصوص هذا الميثاق ، مع بيان مدى تقيد السلطات التشريعية بذلك النص أو بأية إجراءات أخرى
    المادة الثانية عشرة :
    1- يصبح هذا الميثاق نافذا في اليوم التسعين الذي يلي تاريخ إيداع الوثيقة الثالثة من وثائق التصديق أو الانضمام
    2- كل دولة تصدق على هذا الميثاق أو تنضم إليه بعد إيداع الوثيقة الثالثة من وثائق التصديق أو الانضمام يصبح هذا الميثاق نافذا بحقها في اليوم التسعين من تاريخ إيداع وثيقة التصديق أو الانضمام المبحوث عنها
    المادة الثالثة عشرة :
    1- يجوز لأية دولة من الدول المتعاقدة أن تنسحب من هذا الميثاق وذلك بتقديم إشعار خطي بذلك إلى السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة ويتم الانسحاب بعد انقضاء سنة واحدة على تاريخ استلام الإشعار من قبل السكرتير العام
    2- أية دولة من الدول التي تكون قد تقدمت بتصريح أو إشعار بمقتضى أحكام المادة العاشرة من هذا الميثاق يجوز لها في أي وقت لاحق ، وبإشعار ترسله إلى السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة ، أن تعلن أن هذا الميثاق لم يعد معمولا به في المنطقة ذات العلاقة وذلك بعد انقضاء سنة واحدة على تاريخ استلام الإشعار من قبل السكرتير العام
    3- يظل هذا الميثاق مطبقا على قرارات التحكيم التي اتخذت بشأنها الإجراءات اللازمة من أجل الاعتراف بها أو تنفيذها قبل تاريخ الانسحاب
    المادة الرابعة عشرة :
    لا يحق لإحدى الدول المتعاقدة أن تلجأ إلى تطبيق هذا الميثاق ضد الدول المتعاقدة الأخرى ما لم تكن تلك الدولة نفسها مقيدة بأحكام الميثاق وإلى نفس المدى
    المادة الخامسة عشرة :
    على السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة أن يبلغ الدول المبحوث عنها في المادة الثامنة بما يلي :
    أ- التوقيع والتصديق بمقتضى المادة الثامنة
    ب- الانضمام بمقتضى المادة التاسعة
    ج- التصريحات والإشعارات بمقتضى المواد الأولى والعاشرة والحادية عشرة
    د- تاريخ بدء العمل بهذا الميثاق بمقتضى المادة الثانية عشرة
    هـ الانسحابات والإشعارات بمقتضى المادة الثالثة عشرة
    المادة السادسة عشرة :
    1- يجري إيداع هذا الميثاق في أرشيف هيئة الأمم المتحدة ، وقد تم وضعه باللغات الصينية والإنكليزية والفرنسية والروسية والإسبانية وتعتبر هذه الصيغ بأجمعها صحيحة : على قدم المساواة فيها بينها
    2- على السكرتير العام لهيئة الأمم المتحدة أن ترسل صورة مصدقة من هذا الميثاق إلى الدول المبحوث عنها في المادة الثامنة .

  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

    Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

    Of March 20, 1883 as revised at BRUSSELS on December 14, 1900, at WASHINGTON on June 2, 1911, at THE HAGUE on November 6, 1925, at LONDON on June 2, 1934, at LISBON on October 31, 1958, and at STOCKHOLM or, July 14, 1967, and as amended on October 2, 1979

    Article 1
    Establishment of the Union; Scope of Industrial Property
    (1) The countries to which this Convention applies constitute a Union for the protection of industrial property.
    (2) The protection of industrial property has as its object patents, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks, service marks, trade names, indications of source or appellations of origin, and the repression of unfair competition.
    (3) Industrial property shall be understood in the broadest sense and shall apply not only to industry and commerce proper, but likewise to agricultural and extractive industries and to all manufactured or natural products, for example, wines, grain, tobacco leaf, fruit, cattle, minerals, mineral waters, beer, flowers, and flour.
    (4) Patents shall include the various kinds of industrial patents recognized by the laws of the countries of the Union, such as patents of importation, patents of improvement, patents and certificates of addition, etc.

    Article 2
    National Treatment for Nationals of Countries of the Union
    (1) Nationals of any country of the Union shall, as regards the protection of industrial property, enjoy in all the other countries of the Union the advantages that their respective laws now grant, or may hereafter grant, to nationals; all without prejudice to the rights specially provided for by this Convention. Consequently, they shall have the same protection as the latter, and the same legal remedy against any infringement of their rights, provided that the conditions and formalities imposed upon nationals are complied with.
    (2) However, no requirement as to domicile or establishment in the country where protection is claimed may be imposed upon nationals of countries of the Union for the enjoyment of any industrial property rights.
    (3) The provisions of the laws of each of the countries of the Union relating to judicial and administrative procedure and to jurisdiction, and to the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent, which may be required by the laws on industrial property are expressly reserved.

    Article 3

    Same Treatment for Certain Categories of Persons as for
    Nationals of Countries of the Union

    Nationals of countries outside the Union who are domiciled or who have real and effective industrial or commercial establishments in the territory of one of the countries of the Union shall be treated in the same manner as nationals of the countries of the Union.

    Article 4
    A to I: Patents, Utility Models, Industrial Designs, Marks,
    Inventors’ Certificates: Right of Priority.
    G: Patents: Division of the Application
    A.
    (1) Any person who has duly filed an application for a patent, or for the registration of a utility model, or of an industrial design, or of a trademark, in one of the countries of the Union, or his successor in title, shall enjoy, for the purpose of filing in the other countries, a right of priority during the periods hereinafter fixed.
    (2) Any filing that is equivalent to a regular national filing under the domestic legislation of any country of the Union or under bilateral or multilateral treaties concluded between countries of the Union shall be recognized as giving rise to the right of priority.
    (3) By a regular national filing is meant any filing that is adequate to establish the date on which the application was filed in the country concerned, whatever may be the subsequent fate of the application.

    B.
    Consequently, any subsequent filing in any of the other countries of the Union before the expiration of the periods referred to above shall not be invalidated by reason of any acts accomplished in the interval, in particular, another filing, the publication or exploitation of the invention, the putting on sale of copies of the design, or the use of the mark, and such acts cannot give rise to any third-party right or any right of personal possession. Rights acquired by third parties before the date of the first application that serves as the basis for the right of priority are reserved in accordance with the domestic legislation of each country of the Union

    C.
    (1) The periods of priority referred to above shall be twelve months for patents and utility models, and six months for industrial designs and trademarks.
    (2) These periods shall start from the date of filing of the first application; the day of filing shall not be included in the period.
    (3) If the last day of the period is an official holiday, or a day when the Office is not open for the filing of applications in the country where protection is claimed, the period shall be extended until the first following working day.
    (4) A subsequent application concerning the same subject as a previous first application within the meaning of paragraph (2), above, filed in the same country of the Union. shall be considered as the first application, of which the filing date shall be the starting point of the period of priority, if, at the time of filing the subsequent application, the said previous application has been withdrawn, abandoned, or refused, without having been laid open to public inspection and without leaving any rights outstanding, and if it has not yet served as a basis for claiming a right of priority. The previous application may not thereafter serve as a basis for claiming a right of priority.

    D.
    (1) Any person desiring to take advantage of the priority of a previous filing shall be required to make a declaration indicating the date of such filing and the country in which it was made. Each country shall determine the latest date on which such declaration must be made.
    (2) These particulars shall be mentioned in the publications issued by the competent authority, and in particular in the patents and the specifications relating thereto.
    (3) The countries of the Union may require any person making a declaration of priority to produce a copy of the application (description, drawings, etc.) previously filed. The copy, certified as correct by the authority which received such application, shall not require any authentication, and may in any case be filed, without fee, at any time within three months of the filing of the subsequent application. They may require it to be accompanied by a certificate from the same authority showing the date of filing, and by a translation.
    (4) No other formalities may be required for the declaration of priority at the time of filing the application. Each country of the Union shall determine the consequences of failure to comply with the formalities prescribed by this Article, but such consequences shall in no case go beyond the loss of the right of priority.
    (5) Subsequently, further proof may be required. Any person who avails himself of the priority of a previous application shall be required to specify the number of that application; this number shall be published as provided for by paragraph (2), above.

    E.
    (1) Where an industrial design is filed in a country by virtue of a right of priority based on the filing of a utility model, the period of priority shall be the same as that fixed for industrial designs
    (2) Furthermore, it is permissible to file a utility model in a country by virtue of a right of priority based on the filing of a patent application, and vice versa.

    F.
    No country of the Union may refuse a priority or a patent application on the ground that the applicant claims multiple priorities, even if they originate in different countries, or on the ground that an application claiming one or more priorities contains one or more elements that were not included in the application or applications whose priority is claimed, provided that, in both cases, there is unity of invention within the meaning of the law of the country. With respect to the elements not included in the application or applications whose priority is claimed, the filing of the subsequent application shall give rise to a right of priority tinder ordinary conditions.

    G.
    (1) If the examination reveals that an application for a patent contains more than one invention, the applicant may divide the application into a certain number of divisional applications and preserve as the date of each the date of the initial application and the benefit of the right of priority, if any.
    (2) The applicant may also, on his own initiative, divide a patent application and preserve as the date of each divisional application the date of the initial application and the benefit of the right of priority, if any. Each country of the Union shall have the right to determine the conditions under which such division shall be authorized.

    H.
    Priority may not be refused on the ground that certain elements of the invention for which priority is claimed do not appear among the claims formulated in the application in the country of origin, provided that the application documents as a whole specifically disclose such elements.

    I.
    (1) Applications for inventors’ certificates filed in a country in which applicants have the right to apply at their own option either for a patent or for an inventor’s certificate shall give rise to the right of priority provided for by this Article, under the same conditions and with the same effects as applications for patents.
    (2) In a country in which applicants have the right to apply at their own option either for a patent or for an inventor’s certificate, an applicant for an inventor’s certificate shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Article relating to patent applications, enjoy a right of priority based on an application for a patent, a utility model, or an inventor’s certificate.

    Article 4bis
    Patents: Independence of Patents Obtained for the Same Invention in Different Countries

    (1) Patents applied for in the various countries of the Union by nationals of countries of the Union shall be independent of patents obtained for the same invention in other countries, whether members of the Union or not.
    (2) The foregoing provision is to be understood in an unrestricted sense, in particular, in the sense that patents applied for during the period of priority are independent, both as regards the grounds for nullity and forfeiture, and as regards their normal duration.
    (3) The provision shall apply to all patents existing at the time when it comes into effect.
    (4) Similarly, it shall apply, in the case of the accession of new countries, to patents in existence on either side at the time of accession.
    (5) Patents obtained with the benefit of priority shall, in the various countries of the Union, have a duration equal to that which they would have, had they been applied for or granted without the benefit of priority.

    Article 4ter
    Patents: Mention of the Inventor in the Patent

    The inventor shall have the right to be mentioned as such in the patent.

    Article 4quater
    Patents: Patentability in Case of Restrictions of Sale by Law

    The grant of a patent shall not be refused and a patent shall not be invalidated on the ground that the sale of the patented product or of a product obtained by means of a patented process is subject to restrictions or limitations resulting from the domestic law.

    Article 5

    A. Patents: Importation of Articles; Failure to Work or Insufficient Working; Compulsory Licenses.
    B. Industrial Designs: Failure to Work; Importation of Articles.
    C. Marks: Failure to Use; Different Forms; Use by Co-proprietors.
    D. Patents, Utility Models, Marks, Industrial Designs: Marking

    A.
    (1) Importation by the patentee into the country where the patent has been granted of articles manufactured in any of the countries of the Union shall not entail forfeiture of the patent.
    (2) Each country of the Union shall have the right to take legislative measures providing for the grant of compulsory licenses to prevent the abuses which might result from the exercise of the exclusive rights conferred by the patent, for example, failure to work.
    (3) Forfeiture of the patent shall not be provided for except in cases where the grant of compulsory licenses would not have been sufficient to prevent the said abuses. No proceedings for the forfeiture or revocation of a patent may be instituted before the expiration of two years from the grant of the first compulsory license.
    (4) A compulsory license may not be applied for on the ground of failure to work or insufficient working before the expiration of a period of four years from the date of filing of the patent application or three years from the date of the grant of the patent, whichever period expires last; it shall be refused if the patentee justifies his inaction by legitimate reasons. Such a compulsory license shall be non-exclusive and shall not be transferable, even in the form of the grant of a sub-license, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which exploits such license.
    (5) The foregoing provisions shall be applicable, mutatis mutandis, to utility models.

    B.
    The protection of industrial designs shall not, under any circumstance, be subject to any forfeiture, either by reason of failure to work or by reason of the importation of articles corresponding to those which are protected.

    C.
    (1) If, in any country, use of the registered mark is compulsory, the registration may be cancelled only after a reasonable period, and then only if the person concerned does not justify his inaction.
    (2) Use of a trademark by the proprietor in a form differing in elements which do not alter the distinctive character of the mark in the form in which it was registered in one of the countries of the Union shall not entail invalidation of the registration and shall not diminish the protection granted to the mark.
    (3) Concurrent use of the same mark on identical or similar goods by industrial or commercial establishments considered as co-proprietors of the mark according to the provisions of the domestic law of the country where protection is claimed shall not prevent registration or diminish in any way the protection granted to the said mark in any country of the Union, provided that such use does not result in misleading the public and is not contrary to the public interest.

    D.
    No indication or mention of the patent, of the utility model, of the registration of the trademark, or of the deposit of the industrial design, shall be required upon the goods as a condition of recognition of the right to protection.

    Article 5bis
    All Industrial Property Rights: Period of Grace for the Payment of Fees for the Maintenance of Rights; Patents: Restoration

    (1) A period of grace of not less than six months shall be allowed for the payment of the fees prescribed for the maintenance of industrial property rights, subject, if the domestic legislation so provides, to the payment of a surcharge.
    (2) The countries of the Union shall have the right to provide for the restoration of patents which have lapsed by reason of non-payment of fees.

    Article 5ter
    Patents: Patented Devices Forming Part of Vessels, Aircraft, or Land Vehicles

    In any country of the Union the following shall not be considered as infringements of the rights of a patentee:
    1. the use on board vessels of other countries of the Union of devices forming the subject of his patent in the body of the vessel, in the machinery, tackle, gear and other accessories, when such vessels temporarily or accidentally enter the waters of the said country, provided that such devices are used there exclusively for the needs of the vessel;
    2. the use of devices forming the subject of the patent in the construction or operation of aircraft or land vehicles of other countries of the Union, or of accessories of such aircraft or land vehicles, when those aircraft or land vehicles temporarily or accidentally enter the said country.

    Article 5quater
    Patents: Importation of Products Manufactured by a Process Patented in the Importing Country

    When a product is imported into a country of the Union where there exists a patent protecting a process of manufacture of the said product, the patentee shall have all the rights, with regard to the imported product, that are accorded to him by the legislation of the country of importation, on the basis of the process patent, with respect to products manufactured in that country.

    Article 5quinquies
    Industrial Designs

    Industrial designs shall be protected in all the countries of the Union.

    Article 6
    Marks: Conditions of Registration; Independence of Protection of Same Mark in Different Countries

    (1) The conditions for the filing and registration of trademarks shall be determined in each country of the Union by its domestic legislation.
    (2) However, an application for the registration of a mark filed by a national of a country of the Union in any country of the Union may not be refused, nor may a registration be invalidated, on the ground that filing, registration, or renewal, has not been effected in the country of origin.
    (3) A mark duly registered in a country of the Union shall be regarded as independent of marks registered in the other countries of the Union, including the country of origin.

    Article 6bis
    Marks: Well-Known Marks

    (1) The countries of the Union undertake, ex officio if their legislation so permits, or at the request of an interested party, to refuse or to cancel the registration, and to prohibit the use, of a trademark which constitutes a reproduction, an imitation, or a translation, liable to create confusion, of a mark considered by the competent authority of the country of registration or use to be well known in that country as being already the mark of a person entitled to the benefits of this Convention and used for identical or similar goods. These provisions shall also apply when the essential part of the mark constitutes a reproduction of any such well-known mark or an imitation liable to create confusion therewith.
    (2) A period of at least five years from the date of registration shall be allowed for requesting the cancellation of such a mark. The countries of the Union may provide for a period within which the prohibition of use must be requested.
    (3) No time limit shall be fixed for requesting the cancellation or the prohibition of the use of marks registered or used in bad faith.

    Article 6ter
    Marks: Prohibitions concerning State Emblems, Official Hallmarks, and Emblems of Intergovernmental Organizations

    (1) (a) The countries of the Union agree to refuse or to invalidate the registration, and to prohibit by appropriate measures the use, without authorization by the competent authorities, either as trademarks or as elements of trademarks, of armorial bearings, flags, and other State emblems, of the countries of the Union, official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty adopted by them, and any imitation from a heraldic point of view.
    (b) The provisions of subparagraph (a), above, shall apply equally to armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations of which one or more countries of the Union are members, with the exception of armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, that are already the subject of international agreements in force, intended to ensure their protection.
    (c) No country of the Union shall be required to apply the provisions of subparagraph (b), above, to the prejudice of the owners of rights acquired in good faith before the entry into force, in that country, of this Convention. The countries of the Union shall not be required to apply the said provisions when the use or registration referred to in subparagraph (a), above, is not of such a nature as to suggest to the public that a connection exists between the organization concerned and the armorial bearings, flags, emblems, abbreviations, and names, or if such use or registration is probably not of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the existence of a connection between the user and the organization.
    (2) Prohibition of the use of official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty shall apply solely in cases where the marks in which they are incorporated are intended to be used on goods of the same or a similar kind.
    (3) (a) For the application of these provisions, the countries of the Union agree to communicate reciprocally, through the intermediary of the International Bureau, the list of State emblems, and official signs and hallmarks indicating control and warranty, which they desire, or may hereafter desire, to place wholly or within certain limits tinder the protection of this Article, and all subsequent modifications of such list. Each country of the Union shall in due course make available to the public the lists so communicated. Nevertheless such communication is not obligatory in respect of flags of States.
    (b) The provisions of paragraph (1)(b) of this Article shall apply only to such armorial bearings, flags, other emblems, abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations as the latter have communicated to the countries of the Union through the intermediary of the International Bureau.
    (4) Any country of the Union may, within a period of twelve months from the receipt of the notification, transmit its objections, if any, through the intermediary of the International Bureau, to the country or international intergovernmental organization concerned.
    (5) In the case of State flags, the measures prescribed by paragraph (1), above, shall apply solely to marks registered after November 6, 1925.
    (6) In the case of State emblems other than flags, and of official signs and hallmarks of the countries of the Union, and in the case of armorial bearings, flags, other emblems. abbreviations, and names, of international intergovernmental organizations, these provisions shall apply only to marks registered more than two months after receipt of the communication provided for in paragraph (3), above.
    (7) In cases of bad faith, the countries shall have the right to cancel even those marks incorporating State emblems, signs, and hallmarks, which were registered before November 6, 1925.
    (8) Nationals of any country who are authorized to make use of the State emblems, signs, and hallmarks, of their country may use them even if they are similar to those of another country.
    (9) The countries of the Union undertake to prohibit the unauthorized use in trade of the State armorial bearings of the other countries of the Union, when the use is of such a nature as to be misleading as to the origin of the goods.
    (10) The above provisions shall not prevent the countries from exercising the right given in Article 6quinquies(B)(3), to refuse or to invalidate the registration of marks incorporating, without authorization, armorial bearings, flags, other State emblems, or official signs and hallmarks adopted by a country of the Union, as well as the distinctive signs of international intergovernmental organizations referred to in paragraph (1), above.

    Article 6quater
    Marks: Assignment of Marks
    (1) When, in accordance with the law of a country of the Union, the assignment of a mark is valid only if it takes place at the same time as the transfer of the business or goodwill to which the mark belongs, it shall suffice for the recognition of such validity that the portion of the business or goodwill located in that country be transferred to the assignee, together with the exclusive right to manufacture in the said country, or to sell therein, the goods bearing the mark assigned.
    (2) The foregoing provision does not impose upon the countries of the Union any obligation to regard as valid the assignment of any mark the use of which by the assignee would, in fact, be of such a nature as to mislead the public, particularly as regards the origin, nature, or essential qualities, of the goods to which the mark is applied.

    Article 6quinquies
    Marks: Protection of Marks Registered in One Country of the Union in the Other Countries of the Union

    A.
    (1) Every trademark duly registered in the country of origin shall be accepted for filing and protected as is in the other countries of the Union, subject to the reservations indicated in this Article. Such countries may, before proceeding to final registration, require the production of a certificate of registration in the country of origin, issued by the competent authority. No authentication shall be required for this certificate.
    (2) Shall be considered the country of origin the country of the Union where the applicant has a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment, or, if he has no such establishment within the Union, the country of the Union where he has his domicile, or, if he has no domicile within the Union but is a national of a country of the Union, the country of which he is a national.

    B.
    Trademarks covered by this Article may be neither denied registration nor invalidated except in the following cases:
    1. when they are of such a nature as to infringe rights acquired by third parties in the country where protection is claimed;
    2. when they are devoid of any distinctive character, or consist exclusively of signs or indications which may serve, in trade, to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, place of origin, of the goods, or the time of production, or have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade of the country where protection is claimed;
    3. when they are contrary to morality or public order and, in particular, of such a nature as to deceive the public. lt is understood that a mark may not be considered contrary to public order for the sole reason that it does not conform to a provision of the legislation on marks, except if such provision itself relates to public order. This provision is subject, however, to the application of Article 10bis.

    C.
    (1) In determining whether a mark is eligible for protection, all the factual circumstances must be taken into consideration, particularly the length of time the mark has been in use.
    (2) No trademark shall be refused in the other countries of the Union for the sole reason that it differs from the mark protected in the country of origin only in respect of elements that do not alter its distinctive character and do not affect its identity in the form in which it has been registered in the said country of origin.

    D.
    No person may benefit from the provisions of this Article if the mark for which he claims protection is not registered in the country of origin.

    E.
    However, in no case shall the renewal of the registration of the mark in the country of origin involve an obligation to renew the registration in the other countries of the Union in which the mark has been registered.

    F.
    The benefit of priority shall remain unaffected for applications for the registration of marks filed within the period fixed by Article 4, even if registration in the country of origin is effected after the expiration of such period.

    Article 6sexies
    Marks: Service Marks
    The countries of the Union undertake to protect service marks. They shall not be required to provide for the registration of such marks.

    Article 6septies
    Marks: Registration in the Name of the Agent or Representative of the Proprietor Without the Latter’s Authorization

    (1) If the agent or representative of the person who is the proprietor of a mark in one of the countries of the Union applies, without such proprietor’s authorization, for the registration of the mark in his own name, in one or more countries of the Union, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for or demand its cancellation or, if the law of the country so allows, the assignment in his favor of the said registration, unless such agent or representative justifies his action.
    (2) The proprietor of the mark shall, subject to the provisions of paragraph (1), above, be entitled to oppose the use of his mark by his agent or representative if he has not authorized such use.
    (3) Domestic legislation may provide an equitable time limit within which the proprietor of a mark must exercise the rights provided for in this Article.

    Article 7
    Marks: Nature of the Goods to which the Mark is Applied

    The nature of the goods to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to the registration of the mark.

    Article 7bis
    Marks: Collective Marks

    (1) The countries of the Union undertake to accept for filing and to protect collective marks belonging to associations the existence of which is not contrary to the law of the country of origin, even if such associations do not possess an industrial or commercial establishment.
    (2) Each country shall be the judge of the particular conditions under which a collective mark shall be protected and may refuse protection if the mark is contrary to the public interest.
    (3) Nevertheless, the protection of these marks shall not be refused to any association the existence of which is not contrary to the law of the country of origin, on the ground that such association is not established in the country where protection is sought or is not constituted according to the law of the latter country.

    Article 8
    Trade Names

    A trade name shall be protected in all the countries of the Union without the obligation of filing or registration, whether or not it forms part of a trademark.

    Article 9
    Marks, Trade Names: Seizure, on Importation, etc., of Goods Unlawfully Bearing a Mark or Trade Name

    (1) All goods unlawfully bearing a trademark or trade name shall be seized on importation into those countries of the Union where such mark or trade name is entitled to legal protection.
    (2) Seizure shall likewise be effected in the country where the unlawful affixation occurred or in the country into which the goods were imported.
    (3) Seizure shall take place at the request of the public prosecutor, or any other competent authority, or any interested party, whether a natural person or a legal entity, in conformity with the domestic legislation of each country.
    (4) The authorities shall not be bound to effect seizure of goods in transit.
    (5) If the legislation of a country does not permit seizure on importation, seizure shall be replaced by prohibition of importation or by seizure inside the country.
    (6) If the legislation of a country permits neither seizure on importation nor prohibition of importation nor seizure inside the country, then, until such time as the legislation is modified accordingly, these measures shall be replaced by the actions and remedies available in such cases to nationals under the law of such country.

    Article 10
    False Indications: Seizure, on Importation, etc., of Goods Bearing False Indications as to their Source or the Identity of the Producer

    (1) The provisions of the preceding Article shall apply in cases of direct or indirect use of a false indication of the source of the good or the identity of the producer, manufacturer, or merchant.
    (2) Any producer, manufacturer, or merchant, whether a natural person or a legal entity, engaged in the production or manufacture of or trade in such goods and established either in the locality falsely indicated as the source, or in the region where such locality is situated, or in the country falsely indicated, or in the country where the false indication of source is used, shall in any case he deemed an interested party.

    Article 10bis
    Unfair Competition

    (1) The countries of the Union are bound to assure to nationals of such countries effective protection against unfair competition.
    (2) Any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters constitutes an act of unfair competition.
    (3) The following in particular shall be prohibited:
    1. all acts of such a nature as to create confusion by any means whatever with the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
    2. false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
    3. indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the public as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity, of the goods.

    Article 10ter
    Marks, Trade Names, False Indications, Unfair Competition: Remedies, Right to Sue

    (1) The countries of the Union undertake to assure to nationals of the other countries of the Union appropriate legal remedies effectively to repress all the acts referred to in Articles 9, 10, and 10bis.
    (2) They undertake, further, to provide measures to permit federations and associations representing interested industrialists, producers, or merchants, provided that the existence of such federations and associations is not contrary to the laws of their countries, to take action in the courts or before the administrative authorities, with a view to the repression of the acts referred to in Articles 9, 10, and 10bis, in so far as the law of the country in which protection is claimed allows such action by federations and associations of that country.

    Article 11
    Inventions, Utility Models, Industrial Designs, Marks: Temporary Protection at Certain International Exhibitions

    (1) The countries of the Union shall, in conformity with their domestic legislation, grant temporary protection to patentable inventions, utility models, industrial designs, and trademarks, in respect of goods exhibited at official or officially recognized international exhibitions held in the territory of any of them.
    (2) Such temporary protection shall not extend the periods provided by Article 4. If, later, the right of priority is invoked, the authorities of any country may provide that the period shall start from the date of introduction of the goods into the exhibition.
    (3) Each country may require, as proof of the identity of the article exhibited and of the date of its introduction, such documentary evidence as it considers necessary.

    Article 12
    Special National Industrial Property Services

    (1) Each country of the Union undertakes to establish a special industrial property service and a central office for the communication to the public of patents, utility models, industrial designs, and trademarks.
    (2) This service shall publish an official periodical journal. It shall publish regularly:
    (a) the names of the proprietors of patents granted, with a brief designation of the inventions patented;
    (b) the reproductions of registered trademarks.

    Article 13
    Assembly of the Union

    (1)
    (a) The Union shall have an Assembly consisting of those countries of the Union which are bound by Articles 13 to 17.
    (b) The Government of each country shall be represented by one delegate, who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors, and experts.
    (c) The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Government which has appointed it.
    (2)
    (a) The Assembly shall:
    (i) deal with all matters concerning the maintenance and development of the Union and the implementation of this Convention;
    (ii) give directions concerning the preparation for conferences of revision to the International Bureau of Intellectual Property (hereinafter designated as “the International Bureau”) referred to in the Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (hereinafter designated as “the Organization”), due account being taken of any comments made by those countries of the Union which are not hound by Articles 13 to 17;

    (iii)

    review and approve the reports and activities of the Director General of the Organization concerning the Union, and give him all necessary instructions concerning matters within the competence of the Union;

    (iv)

    elect the members of the Executive Committee of the Assembly;

    (v)

    review and approve the reports and activities of its Executive Committee, and give instructions to such Committee;

    (vi)

    determine the program and adopt the biennial budget of the Union, and approve its final accounts;

    (vii)

    adopt the financial regulations of the Union;

    (viii)

    establish such committees of experts and working groups as it deems appropriate to achieve the objectives of the Union;

    (ix)

    determine which countries not members of the Union and which intergovernmental and international nongovernmental organizations shall be admitted to its meetings as observers;

    (x)

    adopt amendments to Articles 13 to 17;

    (xi)

    take any other appropriate action designed to further the objectives of the Union;

    (xii)

    perform such other functions as are appropriate under this Convention;

    (xiii)

    subject to its acceptance, exercise such rights as are given to it in the Convention establishing the Organization.

    (b)
    With respect to matters which are of interest also to other Unions administered by the Organization, the Assembly shall make its decisions after having heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.

    (3)

    (a)
    Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b), a delegate may represent one country only.

    (b)
    Countries of the Union grouped under the terms of a special agreement in a common office possessing for each of them the character of a special national service of industrial property as referred to in Article 12 may be jointly represented during discussions by one of their number.

    (4)

    (a)
    Each country member of the Assembly shall have one vote.

    (b)
    One-half of the countries members of the Assembly shall constitute a quorum.

    (c)
    Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (b), if, in any session, the number of countries represented is less than one-half but equal to or more than one-third of the countries members of the Assembly, the Assembly may make decisions but, with the exception of decisions concerning its own procedure, all such decisions shall take effect only if the conditions, set forth hereinafter are fufilled. The International Bureau shall communicate the said decisions to the countries members of the Assembly which were not represented and shall invite them to express in writing their vote or abstention within a period of three months from the date of the communication. If, at the expiration of this period, the number of countries having thus expressed their vote or abstention attains the number of countries which was lacking for attaining the quorum in the session itself, such decisions shall take effect provided that at the same time the required majority still obtains.

    (d)
    Subject to the provisions of Article 17(2), the decisions of the Assembly shall require two-thirds of the votes cast.

    (e)
    Abstentions shall not be considered as votes.

    (5)

    (a)
    Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b), a delegate may vote in the name of one country only.

    (b)
    The countries of the Union referred to in paragraph (3)(b) shall, as a general rule, endeavor to send their own delegations to the sessions of the Assembly. If, however, for exceptional reasons, any such country cannot send its own delegation, it may give to the delegation of another such country the power to vote in its name, provided that each delegation may vote by proxy for one country only. Such power to vote shall be granted in a document signed by the Head of State or the competent Minister.

    (6)
    Countries of the Union not members of the Assembly shall be admitted to the meetings of the latter as observers.

    (7)

    (a)
    The Assembly shall meet once in every second calendar year in ordinary session upon convocation by the Director General and, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, during the same period and at the same place as the General Assembly of the Organization.

    (b)
    The Assembly shall meet in extraordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, at the request of the Executive Committee or at the request of one-fourth of the countries members of the Assembly.

    (8)
    The Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure.

    Article 14

    Executive Committee

    (1)
    The Assembly shall have an Executive Committee.

    (2)

    (a)
    The Executive Committee shall consist of countries elected by the Assembly from among countries members of the Assembly. Furthermore, the country on whose territory the Organization has its headquarters shall, subject to the provisions of Article 16(7)(b), have an ex officio seat on the Committee.

    (b)
    The Government of each country member of the Executive Committee shall be represented by one delegate, who may be assisted by alternate delegates, advisors, and experts.

    (c)
    The expenses of each delegation shall be borne by the Government which has appointed it.

    (3)
    The number of countries members of the Executive Committee shall correspond to one-fourth of the number of countries members of the Assembly. In establishing the number of seats to be filled, remainders after division by four shall be disregarded.

    (4)
    In electing the members of the Executive Committee, the Assembly shall have due regard to an equitable geographical distribution and to the need for countries party to the Special Agreements established in relation with the Union to be among the countries constituting the Executive Committee.

    (5)

    (a)
    Each member of the Executive Committee shall serve from the close of the session of the Assembly which elected it to the close of the next ordinary session of the Assembly.

    (b)
    Members of the Executive Committee may be re-elected, but only up to a maximum of two-thirds of such members.

    (c)
    The Assembly shall establish the details of the rules governing the election and possible re-election of the members of the Executive Committee.

    (6)

    (a)
    The Executive Committee shall:

    (i)

    prepare the draft agenda of the Assembly;

    (ii)

    submit proposals to the Assembly in respect of the draft program and biennial budget of the Union prepared by the Director General;

    (iii)

    deleted

    (iv)

    submit, with appropriate comments, to the Assembly the periodical reports of the Director General and the yearly audit reports on the accounts;

    (v)

    take all necessary measures to ensure the execution of the program of the Union by the Director General, in accordance with the decisions of the Assembly and having regard to circumstances arising between two ordinary sessions of the Assembly;

    (vi)

    perform such other functions as are allocated to it tinder this Convention.

    (b)
    With respect to matters which are of interest also to other Unions administered by the Organization, the Executive Committee shall make its decisions after having heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.

    (7)

    (a)
    The Executive Committee shall meet once a year in ordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, preferably during the same period and at the same place as the Coordination Committee of the Organization.

    (b)
    The Executive Committee shall meet in extraordinary session upon convocation by the Director General, either on his own initiative, or at the request of its Chairman or onefourth of its members.

    (8)

    (a)
    Each country member of the Executive Committee shall have one vote.

    (b)
    One-half of the members of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum.

    (c)
    Decisions shall be made by a simple majority of the votes cast.

    (d)
    Abstentions shall not be considered as votes.

    (e)
    A delegate may represent, and vote in the name of, one country only.

    (9)
    Countries of the Union not members of the Executive Committee shall be admitted to its meetings as observers.

    (10)
    The Executive Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.

    Article 15

    International Bureau

    (1)

    (a)
    Administrative tasks concerning the Union shall be performed by the International Bureau, which is a continuation of the Bureau of the Union united with the Bureau of the Union established by the International Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.

    (b)
    In particular, the International Bureau shall provide the secretariat of the various organs of the Union.

    (c)
    The Director General of the Organization shall be the chief executive of the Union and shall represent the Union.

    (2)
    The International Bureau shall assemble and publish information concerning the protection of industrial property. Each country of the Union shall promptly communicate to the International Bureau all new laws and official texts concerning the protection of industrial property. Furthermore, it shall furnish the International Bureau with all the publications of its industrial property service of direct concern to the protection of industrial property which the International Bureau may find useful in its work.

    (3)
    The International Bureau shall publish a monthly periodical.

    (4)
    The International Bureau shall, on request, furnish any country of the Union with information on matters concerning the protection of industrial property.

    (5)
    The International Bureau shall conduct Studies, and shall provide services, designed to facilitate the protection of industrial property.

    (6)
    The Director General and any staff member designated by him shall participate, without the right to vote, in all meetings of the Assembly, the Executive Committee, and any other committee of experts or working group. The Director General, or a staff member designated by him, shall be ex officio secretary of these bodies.

    (7)

    (a)
    The International Bureau shall, in accordance with the directions of the Assembly and in cooperation with the Executive Committee, make the preparations for the conferences of revision of the provisions of the Convention other than Articles 13 to 17.

    (b)
    The International Bureau may consult with intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations concerning preparations for conferences of revision.

    (c)
    The Director General and persons designated by him shall take part, without the right to vote, in the discussions at these conferences.

    (8)
    The International Bureau shall carry out any other tasks assigned to it.

    Article 16

    Finances

    (1)

    (a)
    The Union shall have a budget.

    (b)
    The budget of the Union shall include the income and expenses proper to the Union, its contribution to the budget of expenses common to the Unions, and, where applicable, the sum made available to the budget of the Conference of the Organization.

    (c)
    Expenses not attributable exclusively to the Union but also to one or more other Unions administered by the Organization shall be considered as expenses common to the Unions. The share of the Union in such common expenses shall be in proportion to the interest the Union has in them.

    (2)
    The budget of the Union shall be established with due regard to the requirements of coordination with the budgets of the other Unions administered by the Organization.

    (3)
    The budget of the Union shall be financed from the following sources:

    (i)

    contributions of the countries of the Union;

    (ii)

    fees and charges due for services rendered by the International Bureau in relation to the Union;

    (iii)

    sale of, or royalties on, the publications of the International Bureau concerning the Union;

    (iv)

    gifts, bequests, and subventions;

    (v)

    rents, interests, and other miscellaneous income.

    (4)

    (a)
    For the purpose of establishing its contribution towards the budget, each country of the Union shall belong to a class, and shall pay its annual contributions on the basis of a number of units fixed as follows:

    Class I …………. 25

    Class II ………… 20

    Class III ……….. 15

    Class IV ……….. 10

    Class V ………….. 5

    Class VI …………. 3

    Class VII ………… 1

    (b)
    Unless it has already done so, each country shall indicate, concurrently with depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, the class to which it wishes to belong. Any country may change class. If it chooses a lower class, the country must announce such change to the Assembly at one of its ordinary sessions. Any such change shall take effect at the beginning of the calendar year following the said session.

    (c)
    The annual contribution of each country shall be an amount in the same proportion to the total sum to be contributed to the budget of the Union by all countries as the number of its units is to the total of the units of all contributing countries.

    (d)
    Contributions shall become due on the first of January of each year.

    (e)
    A country which is in arrears in the payment of its contributions may not exercise its right to vote in any of the organs of the Union of which it is a member if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. However, any organ of the Union may allow such a country to continue to exercise its right to vote in that organ if, and as long as, it is satisfied that the delay in payment is due to exceptional and unavoidable circumstances.

    (f)
    If the budget is not adopted before the beginning of a new financial period, it shall be at the same level as the budget of the previous year, as provided in the financial regulations

    (5)
    The amount of the fees and charges due for services rendered by the International Bureau in relation to the Union shall be established, and shall be reported to the Assembly and the Executive Committee, by the Director General.

    (6)

    (a)
    The Union shall have a working capital fund which shall be constituted by a single payment made by each country of the Union. If the fund becomes insufficient, the Assembly shall decide to increase it.

    (b)
    The amount of the initial payment of each country to the said fund or of its participation in the increase thereof shall be a proportion of the contribution of that country for the year in which the fund is established or the decision to increase it is made.

    (c)
    The proportion and the terms of payment shall be fixed by the Assembly on the proposal of the Director General and after it has heard the advice of the Coordination Committee of the Organization.

    (7)

    (a)
    In the headquarters agreement concluded with the country on the territory of which the Organization has its headquarters, it shall be provided that, whenever the working capital fund is insufficient, such country shall grant advances. The amount of these advances and the conditions on which they are granted shall be the subject of separate agreements, in each case, between such country and the Organization. As long as it remains under the obligation to grant advances, such country shall have an ex officio seat on the Executive Committee.

    (b)
    The country referred to in subparagraph (a) and the Organization shall each have the right to denounce the obligation to grant advances, by written notification. Denunciation shall take effect three years after the end of the year in which it has been notified.

    (8)
    The auditing of the accounts shall be effected by one or more of the countries of the Union or by external auditors, as provided in the financial regulations. They shall be designated, with their agreement, by the Assembly.

    Article 17

    Amendment of Articles 13 to 17

    (1)
    Proposals for the amendment of Articles 13, 14, 15, 16, and the present Article, may be initiated by any country member of the Assembly, by the Executive Committee, or by the Director General. Such proposals shall be communicated by the Director General to the member countries of the Assembly at least six months in advance of their consideration by the Assembly.

    (2)
    Amendments to the Articles referred to in paragraph (1) shall be adopted by the Assembly. Adoption shall require three-fourths of the votes cast, provided that any amendment to Article 13, and to the present paragraph, shall require four-fifths of the votes cast.

    (3)
    Any amendment to the Articles referred to in paragraph (1) shall enter into force one month after written notifications of acceptance, effected in accordance with their respective constitutional processes, have been received by the Director General from three-fourths of the countries members of the Assembly at the time it adopted the amendment. Any amendment to the said Articles thus accepted shall bind all the countries which are members of the Assembly at the time the amendment enters into force, or which become members thereof at a subsequent date, provided that any amendment increasing the financial obligations of countries of the Union shall bind only those countries which have notified their acceptance of such amendment.

    Article 18

    Revision of Articles 1 to 12 and 18 to 30

    (1)
    This Convention shall be submitted to revision with a view to the introduction of amendments designed to improve the system of the Union.

    (2)
    For that purpose, conferences shall be held successively in one of the countries of the Union among the delegates of the said countries.

    (3)
    Amendments to Articles 13 to 17 are governed by the provisions of Article 17.

    Article 19

    Special Agreements

    It is understood that the countries of the Union reserve the right to make separately between themselves special agreements for the protection of industrial property, in so far as these agreements do not contravene the provisions of this Convention.

    Article 20

    Ratification or Accession by Countries of the Union; Entry Into Force

    (1)

    (a)
    Any country of the Union which has signed this Act may ratify it, and, if it has not signed it, may accede to it. Instruments of ratification and accession shall be deposited with the Director General.

    (b)
    Any country of the Union may declare in its instrument of ratification or accession that its ratification or accession shall not apply:

    (i)

    to Articles 1 to 12, or

    (ii)

    to Articles 13 to 17.

    (c)
    Any country of the Union which, in accordance with subparagraph (b), has excluded from the effects of its ratification or accession one of the two groups of Articles referred to in that subparagraph may at any later time declare that it extends the effects of its ratification or accession to that group of Articles. Such declaration shall be deposited with the Director General.

    (2)

    (a)
    Articles 1 to 12 shall enter into force, with respect to the first ten countries of the Union which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession without making the declaration permitted under paragraph (1)(b)(i), three months after the deposit of the tenth such instrument of ratification or accession.

    (b)
    Articles 13 to 17 shall enter into force, with respect to the first ten countries of the Union which have deposited instruments of ratification or accession without making the declaration permitted under paragraph (1)(b)(ii), three months after the deposit of the tenth such instrument of ratification or accession.

    (c)
    Subject to the initial entry into force, pursuant to the provisions of subparagraphs (a) and (b), of each of the two groups of Articles referred to in paragraph (1)(b)(i) and (1)(b)(ii), and subject to the provisions of paragraph (1)(b), Articles 1 to 17 shall, with respect to any country of the Union, other than those referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b), which deposits an instrument of ratification or accession or any country of the Union which deposits a declaration pursuant to paragraph (1)(c), enter into force three months after the date of notification by the Director General of such deposit, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument or declaration deposited. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.

    (3)
    With respect to any country of the Union which deposits an instrument of ratification or accession, Articles 18 to 30 shall enter into force on the earlier of the dates on which any of the groups of Articles referred to in paragraph (1)(b) enters into force with respect to that country pursuant to paragraph (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c).

    Article 21

    Accession by Countries Outside the Union; Entry Into Force

    (1)
    Any country outside the Union may accede to this Act and thereby become a member of the Union. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Director General.

    (2)

    (a)
    With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession one month or more before the date of entry into force of any provisions of the present Act, this Act shall enter into force, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession, on the date upon which provisions first enter into force pursuant to Article 20(2)(a) or 20(2)(b); provided that:

    (i)

    if Articles 1 to 12 do not enter into force on that date, such country shall, during the interim period before the entry into force of such provisions, and in substitution therefor, be bound by Articles 1 to 12 of the Lisbon Act.

    (ii)

    if Articles 13 to 17 do not enter into force on that date, such country shall, during the interim period before the entry into force of such provisions, and in substitution therefor, be bound by Articles 13 and 14(3), 14(4), and 14(5), of the Lisbon Act.

    If a country indicates a subsequent date in its instrument of accession, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.

    (b)
    With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession on a date which is subsequent to, or precedes by less than one month, the entry into force of one group of Articles of the present Act, this Act shall, subject to the proviso of subparagraph (a), enter into force three months after the date on which its accession has been notified by the Director General, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.

    (3)
    With respect to any country outside the Union which deposits its instrument of accession after the date of entry into force of the present Act in its entirety, or less than one month before such date, this Act shall enter into force three months after the date on which its accession has been notified by the Director General, unless a subsequent date has been indicated in the instrument of accession. In the latter case, this Act shall enter into force with respect to that country on the date thus indicated.

    Article 22

    Consequences of Ratification or Accession

    Subject to the possibilities of exceptions provided for in Articles 20(1)(b) and 28(2), ratification or accession shall automatically entail acceptance of all the clauses and admission to all the advantages of this Act.

    Article 23

    Accession to Earlier Acts

    After the entry into force of this Act in its entirety, a country may not accede to earlier Acto of this Convention.

    Article 24

    Territories

    (1)
    Any country may declare in its instrument of ratification or accession, or may inform the Director General by written notification any time thereafter, that this Convention shall be applicable to all or part of those territories, designated in the declaration or notification, for the external relations of which it is responsible.

    (2)
    Any country which has made such a declaration or given such a notification may, at any time, notify the Director General that this Convention shall cease to be applicable to all or part of such territories.

    (3)

    (a)
    Any declaration made under paragraph (1) shall take effect on the same date as the ratification or accession in the instrument of which it was included, and any notification given under such paragraph shall take effect three months after its notification by the Director General.

    (b)
    Any notification given tinder paragraph (2) shall take effect twelve months after its receipt by the Director General.

    Article 25

    Implementation of the Convention on the Domestic Level

    (1)
    Any country party to this Convention undertakes to adopt, in accordance with its constitution, the measures necessary to ensure the application of this Convention.

    (2)
    lt is understood that, at the time a country deposits its instrument of ratification or accession, it will be in a position under its domestic law to give effect to the provisions of this Convention.

    Article 26

    Denunciation

    (1)
    This Convention shall remain in force without limitation as to time.

    (2)
    Any country may denounce this Act by notification addressed to the Director General. Such denunciation shall constitute also denunciation of all earlier Acts and shall affect only the country making it, the Convention remaining in full force and effect as regards the other countries of the Union.

    (3)
    Denunciation shall take effect one year after the day on which the Director General has received the notification.

    (4)
    The right of denunciation provided by this Article shall not be exercised by any country before the expiration of five years from the date upon which it becomes a member of the Union.

    Article 27

    Application of Earlier Acts

    (1)
    The present Act shall, as regards the relations between the countries to which it applies, and to the extent that it applies, replace the Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883 and the subsequent Acts of revision.

    (2)

    (a)
    As regards the countries to which the present Act does not apply, or does not apply in its entirety, but to which the Lisbon Act of October 31, 1958, applies, the latter shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).

    (b)
    Similarly, as regards the countries to which neither the present Act, nor portions thereof, nor the Lisbon Act applies, the London Act of June 2, 1934, shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).

    (c)
    Similarly, as regards the countries to which neither the present Act, nor portions thereof, nor the Lisbon Act, nor the London Act applies, the Hague Act of November 6, 1925, shall remain in force in its entirety or to the extent that the present Act does not replace it by virtue of paragraph (1).

    (3)
    Countries outside the Union which become party to this Act shall apply it with respect to any country of the Union not party to this Act or which, although party to this Act, has made a declaration pursuant to Article 20(1)(b)(i). Such countries recognize that the said country of the Union may apply, in its relations with them, the provisions of the most recent Act to which it is party.

    Article 28

    Disputes

    (1)
    Any dispute between two or more countries of the Union concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, not settled by negotiation, may, by any one of the countries concerned, he brought before the International Court of Justice by application in conformity with the Statute of the Court, unless the countries concerned agree on some other method of settlement. The country bringing the dispute before the Court shall inform the International Bureau; the International Bureau shall bring the matter to the attention of the other countries of the Union.

    (2)
    Each country may, at the time it signs this Act or deposits its instrument of ratification or accession, declare that it does not consider itself hound by the provisions of paragraph (1). With regard to any dispute between such country and any other country of the Union, the provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply.

    (3)
    Any country having made a declaration in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (2) may, at any time, withdraw its declaration by notification addressed to the Director General.

    Article 29

    Signature, Languages, Depositary Functions

    (1)

    (a)
    This Act shall be signed in a single copy in the French language and shall be deposited with the Government of Sweden.

    (b)
    Official texts shall be established by the Director General, after consultation with the interested Governments, in the English, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish languages, and such other languages as the Assembly may designate.

    (c)
    In case of differences of opinion on the interpretation of the various texts, the French text shall prevail.

    (2)
    This Act shall remain open for signature at Stockholm until January 13, 1968.

    (3)
    The Director General shall transmit two copies, certified by the Government of Sweden, of the signed text of this Act to the Governments of all countries of the Union and, on request, to the Government of any other country.

    (4)
    The Director General shall register this Act with the Secretariat of the United Nations.

    (5)
    The Director General shall notify the Governments of all countries of the Union of signatures, deposits of instruments of ratification or accession and any declarations included in such instruments or made pursuant to Article 20(1)(c), entry into force of any provisions of this Act, notifications of denunciation, and notifications pursuant to Article 24.

    Article 30

    Transitional Provisions

    (1)
    Until the first Director General assumes office, references in this Act to the International Bureau of the Organization or to the Director General shall be deemed to be references to the Bureau of the Union or its Director, respectively.

    (2)
    Countries of the Union not hound by Articles 13 to 17 may, until five years after the entry into force of the Convention establishing the Organization, exercise, if they so desire. The rights provided under Articles 13 to 17 of this Act as if they were hound by those Articles. Any country desiring to exercise such rights shall give written notification to that effect to the Director General; such notification shall be effective from the date of its receipt. Such countries shall be deemed to be members of the Assembly until the expiration of the said period.

    (3)
    As long as all the countries of the Union have not become Members of the Organization, the International Bureau of the Organization shall also function as the Bureau of the Union, and the Director General as the Director of the said Bureau.

    (4)
    Once all the countries of the Union have become Members of the Organization, the rights, obligations, and property, of the Bureau of the Union shall devolve on the International Bureau of the Organization.

    Bibliographic data
    22E
    Organization: WIPO
    Short title: Paris Convention
    Subject matter: PAT, MRK, DES, UMU, UCD
    Text Identifier: WO-PAR
    WIPO Publication: N° 201(E)
    WDN: 1586K

    Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

    Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

    [1]Done at New York, on 10 June 1958
    Further information concerning this Convention, including information concerning ratification, accession and succession and concerning declarations and reservations, may be obtained through the Treaty Section of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, web site http://www.uncitral.org.
    Article I
    1. This Convention shall apply to the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards made in the territory of a State other than the State where the recognition and enforcement of such awards are sought, and arising out of differences between persons, whether physical or legal. It shall also apply to arbitral awards not considered as domestic awards in the State where their recognition and enforcement are sought.
    2. The term “arbitral awards” shall include not only awards made by arbitrators appointed for each case but also those made by permanent arbitral bodies to which the parties have submitted.
    3. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention, or notifying extension under article X hereof, any State may on the basis of reciprocity declare that it will apply the Convention to the recognition and enforcement of awards made only in the territory of another Contracting State. It may also declare that it will apply the Convention only to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under the national law of the State making such declaration.
    Article II
    1. Each Contracting State shall recognize an agreement in writing under which the parties undertake to submit to arbitration all or any differences which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not, concerning a subject matter capable of settlement by arbitration.
    2. The term “agreement in writing” shall include an arbitral clause in a contract or an arbitration agreement, signed by the parties or contained in an exchange of letters or telegrams.
    3. The court of a Contracting State, when seized of an action in a matter in respect of which the parties have made an agreement within the meaning of this article, shall, at the request of one of the parties, refer the parties to arbitration, unless it finds that the said agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed.
    Article III
    Each Contracting State shall recognize arbitral awards as binding and enforce them in accordance with the rules of procedure of the territory where the award is relied upon, under the conditions laid down in the following articles. There shall not be imposed substantially more onerous conditions or higher fees or charges on the recognition or enforcement of arbitral awards to which this Convention applies than are imposed on the recognition or enforcement of domestic arbitral awards.
    Article IV
    1. To obtain the recognition and enforcement mentioned in the preceding article, the party applying for recognition and enforcement shall, at the time of the application, supply:
    (a) The duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof;
    (b) The original agreement referred to in article II or a duly certified copy thereof.
    2. If the said award or agreement is not made in an official language of the country in which the award is relied upon, the party applying for recognition and enforcement of the award shall produce a translation of these documents into such language. The translation shall be certified by an official or sworn translator or by a diplomatic or consular agent.
    Article V
    1. Recognition and enforcement of the award may be refused, at the request of the party against whom it is invoked, only if that party furnishes to the competent authority where the recognition and enforcement is sought, proof that:
    (a) The parties to the agreement referred to in article II were, under the law applicable to them, under some incapacity, or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of the country where the award was made; or
    (b) The party against whom the award is invoked was not given proper notice of the appointment of the arbitrator or of the arbitration proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or
    (c) The award deals with a difference not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or it contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, that part of the award which contains decisions on matters submitted to arbitration may be recognized and enforced; or
    (d) The composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties, or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or
    (e) The award has not yet become binding on the parties, or has been set aside or suspended by a competent authority of the country in which, or under the law of which, that award was made.
    2. Recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award may also be refused if the competent authority in the country where recognition and enforcement is sought finds that:
    (a) The subject matter of the difference is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of that country; or
    (b) The recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of that country.
    Article VI
    If an application for the setting aside or suspension of the award has been made to a competent authority referred to in article V(1)(e), the authority before which the award is sought to be relied upon may, if it considers it proper, adjourn the decision on the enforcement of the award and may also, on the application of the party claiming enforcement of the award, order the other party to give suitable security.
    Article VII
    1. The provisions of the present Convention shall not affect the validity of multilateral or bilateral agreements concerning the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards entered into by the Contracting States nor deprive any interested party of any right he may have to avail himself of an arbitral award in the manner and to the extent allowed by the law or the treaties of the country where such award is sought to be relied upon.
    2. The Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses of 1923 [2] and the Geneva Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1927 [3] shall cease to have effect between Contracting States on their becoming bound and to the extent that they become bound, by this Convention.
    Article VIII
    1. This Convention shall be open until 31 December 1958 for signature on behalf of any Member of the United Nations and also on behalf of any other State which is or hereafter becomes a member of any specialized agency of the United Nations, or which is or hereafter becomes a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, or any other State to which an invitation has been addressed by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
    2. This Convention shall be ratified and the instrument of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
    Article IX
    1. This Convention shall be open for accession to all States referred to in article VIII.
    2. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
    Article X
    1. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all or any of the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible. Such a declaration shall take effect when the Convention enters into force for the State concerned.
    2. At any time thereafter any such extension shall be made by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the day of receipt by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of this notification, or as from the date of entry into force of the Convention for the State concerned, whichever is the later.
    3. With respect to those territories to which this Convention is not extended at the time of signature, ratification or accession, each State concerned shall consider the possibility of taking the necessary steps in order to extend the application of this Convention to such territories, subject, where necessary for constitutional reasons, to the consent of the Governments of such territories.
    Article XI
    In the case of a federal or non-unitary State, the following provisions shall apply:
    (a) With respect to those articles of this Convention that come within the legislative jurisdiction of the federal authority, the obligations of the federal Government shall to this extent be the same as those of Contracting States which are not federal States;
    (b) With respect to those articles of this Convention that come within the legislative jurisdiction of constituent states or provinces which are not, under the constitutional system of the federation, bound to take legislative action, the federal Government shall bring such articles with a favourable recommendation to the notice of the appropriate authorities of constituent states or provinces at the earliest possible moment;
    (c) A federal State Party to this Convention shall, at the request of any other Contracting State transmitted through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, supply a statement of the law and practice of the federation and its constituent units in regard to any particular provision of this Convention, showing the extent to which effect has been given to that provision by legislative or other action.
    Article XII
    1. This Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of the third instrument of ratification or accession.
    2. For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the third instrument of ratification or accession, this Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
    Article XIII
    1. Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention by a written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
    2. Any State which has made a declaration or notification under article X may, at any time thereafter, by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, declare that this Convention shall cease to extend to the territory concerned one year after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
    3. This Convention shall continue to be applicable to arbitral awards in respect of which recognition or enforcement proceedings have been instituted before the denunciation takes effect.
    Article XIV
    A Contracting State shall not be entitled to avail itself of the present Convention against other Contracting States except to the extent that it is itself bound to apply the Convention.
    Article XV
    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify the States contemplated in article VIII of the following:
    (a) Signatures and ratifications in accordance with article VIII;
    (b) Accessions in accordance with article IX;
    (c) Declarations and notifications under articles I, X and XI;
    (d) The date upon which this Convention enters into force in accordance with article XII;
    (e) Denunciations and notifications in accordance with article XIII.
    Article XVI
    1. This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts shall be equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
    2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit a certified copy of this Convention to the States contemplated in article VIII

    AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    ANNEX 1C

    AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
    INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES

    PART II STANDARDS CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, SCOPE AND USE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    1. Copyright and Related Rights
    2. Trademarks
    3. Geographical Indications
    4. Industrial Designs
    5. Patents
    6. Layout-Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits
    7. Protection of Undisclosed Information
    8. Control of Anti-Competitive Practices in Contractual Licences

    PART III ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    1. General Obligations
    2. Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies
    3. Provisional Measures
    4. Special Requirements Related to Border Measures
    5. Criminal Procedures

    PART IV ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND RELATED INTER PARTES PROCEDURES

    PART V DISPUTE PREVENTION AND SETTLEMENT

    PART VI TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

    PART VII INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS; FINAL PROVISIONS

    AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
    INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    Members,
    Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and taking into account the need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade;
    Recognizing, to this end, the need for new rules and disciplines concerning:
    (a) the applicability of the basic principles of GATT 1994 and of relevant international intellectual property agreements or conventions;
    (b) the provision of adequate standards and principles concerning the availability, scope and use of trade-related intellectual property rights;
    (c) the provision of effective and appropriate means for the enforcement of trade-related intellectual property rights, taking into account differences in national legal systems;

    (d) the provision of effective and expeditious procedures for the multilateral prevention and settlement of disputes between governments; and
    (e) transitional arrangements aiming at the fullest participation in the results of the negotiations;
    Recognizing the need for a multilateral framework of principles, rules and disciplines dealing with international trade in counterfeit goods;
    Recognizing that intellectual property rights are private rights;
    Recognizing the underlying public policy objectives of national systems for the protection of intellectual property, including developmental and technological objectives;
    Recognizing also the special needs of the least-developed country Members in respect of maximum flexibility in the domestic implementation of laws and regulations in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base;
    Emphasizing the importance of reducing tensions by reaching strengthened commitments to resolve disputes on trade-related intellectual property issues through multilateral procedures;
    Desiring to establish a mutually supportive relationship between the WTO and the World Intellectual Property Organization (referred to in this Agreement as “WIPO”) as well as other relevant international organizations;
    Hereby agree as follows:

    PART I
    GENERAL PROVISIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES

    Article 1
    Nature and Scope of Obligations

    1. Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement. Members may, but shall not be obliged to, implement in their law more extensive protection than is required by this Agreement, provided that such protection does not contravene the provisions of this Agreement. Members shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
    2. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “intellectual property” refers to all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II.
    3. Members shall accord the treatment provided for in this Agreement to the nationals of other Members. In respect of the relevant intellectual property right, the nationals of other Members shall be understood as those natural or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention (1971), the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, were all Members of the WTO members of those conventions. Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in paragraph 3 of Article 5 or paragraph 2 of Article 6 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the “Council for TRIPS”).

    Article 2
    Intellectual Property Conventions

    1. In respect of Parts II, III and IV of this Agreement, Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 12, and Article 19, of the Paris Convention (1967).

    2. Nothing in Parts I to IV of this Agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that Members may have to each other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits.

    Article 3
    National Treatment

    1. Each Member shall accord to the nationals of other Members treatment no less favourable than that it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protection of intellectual property, subject to the exceptions already provided in, respectively, the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention (1971), the Rome Convention or the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. In respect of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, this obligation only applies in respect of the rights provided under this Agreement. Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in Article 6 of the Berne Convention (1971) or paragraph 1(b) of Article 16 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for TRIPS.
    2. Members may avail themselves of the exceptions permitted under paragraph 1 in relation to judicial and administrative procedures, including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent within the jurisdiction of a Member, only where such exceptions are necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement and where such practices are not applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade.

    Article 4
    Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

    With regard to the protection of intellectual property, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by a Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the nationals of all other Members. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity accorded by a Member:
    (a) deriving from international agreements on judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature and not particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property;
    (b) granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) or the Rome Convention authorizing that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment but of the treatment accorded in another country;
    (c) in respect of the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations not provided under this Agreement;
    (d) deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members.

    Article 5
    Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or
    Maintenance of Protection

    The obligations under Articles 3 and 4 do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the auspices of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of inproperty rights.

    Article 6
    Exhaustion

    For the purposes of dispute settlement under this Agreement, subject to the provisions of Articles 3 and 4 nothing in this Agreement shall be used to address the issue of the exhaustion of intellectual property rights.

    Article 7
    Objectives

    The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations.

    Article 8
    Principles

    1. Members may, in formulating or amending their laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect public health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio-economic and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
    2. Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement, may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.

    PART II

    STANDARDS CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, SCOPE
    AND USE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    SECTION 1: COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Article 9
    Relation to the Berne Convention

    1. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto. However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
    2. Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such.

    Article 10
    Computer Programs and Compilations of Data

    1. Computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention (1971).
    2. Compilations of data or other material, whether in machine readable or other form, which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations shall be protected as such. Such protection, which shall not extend to the data or material itself, shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or material itself.

    Article 11
    Rental Rights

    In respect of at least computer programs and cinematographic works, a Member shall provide authors and their successors in title the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of originals or copies of their copyright works. A Member shall be excepted from this obligation in respect of cinematographic works unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that Member on authors and their successors in title. In respect of computer programs, this obligation does not apply to rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental.

    Article 12
    Term of Protection

    Whenever the term of protection of a work, other than a photographic work or a work of applied art, is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than 50 years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication, or, failing such authorized publication within 50 years from the making of the work, 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making.

    Article 13
    Limitations and Exceptions

    Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.

    Article 14
    Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms
    (Sound Recordings) and Broadcasting Organizations

    1. In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram, performers shall have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the reproduction of such fixation. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance.
    2. Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms.
    3. Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation, the reproduction of fixations, and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts, as well as the communication to the public of television broadcasts of the same. Where Members do not grant such rights to broadcasting organizations, they shall provide owners of copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with the possibility of preventing the above acts, subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971).

    4. The provisions of Article 11 in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatis mutandis to producers of phonograms and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in a Member’s law. If on 15 April 1994 a Member has in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms, it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.
    5. The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place. The term of protection granted pursuant to paragraph 3 shall last for at least 20 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.
    6. Any Member may, in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, provide for conditions, limitations, exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention. However, the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971) shall also apply, mutatis mutandis, to the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms.

    SECTION 2: TRADEMARKS

    Article 15
    Protectable Subject Matter

    1. Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark. Such signs, in particular words including personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, Members may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use. Members may require, as a condition of registration, that signs be visually perceptible.
    2. Paragraph 1 shall not be understood to prevent a Member from denying registration of a trademark on other grounds, provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention (1967).
    3. Members may make registrability depend on use. However, actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for filing an application for registration. An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application.
    4. The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to registration of the trademark.
    5. Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered or promptly after it is registered and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration. In addition, may afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed.

    Article 16
    Rights Conferred

    1. The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having the owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights, nor shall they affect the possibility of Members making rights available on the basis of use.
    2. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to services. In determining whether a trademark is well-known, Members shall take account of the knowledge of the trademark in the relevant sector of the public, including knowledge in the Member concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark.
    3. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which a trademark is registered, provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.

    Article 17
    Exceptions

    Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms, provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third parties.

    Article 18
    Term of Protection

    Initial registration, and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years. The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.

    Article 19
    Requirement of Use

    1. If use is required to maintain a registration, the registration may be cancelled only after an uninterrupted period of at least three years of non-use, unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner. Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark which constitute an obstacle to the use of the trademark, such as import restrictions on or other government requirements for goods or services protected by the trademark, shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use.
    2. When subject to the control of its owner, use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.

    Article 20
    Other Requirements

    The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements, such as use with another trademark, use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. This will not preclude a requirement prescribing the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing the goods or services along with, but without linking it to, the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking.

    Article 21
    Licensing and Assignment

    Members may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks, it being understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs.

    SECTION 3: GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS

    Article 22
    Protection of Geographical Indications

    1. Geographical indications are, for the purposes of this Agreement, indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
    2. In respect of geographical indications, Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent:
    (a) the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good;
    (b) any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967).
    3. A Member shall, ex officio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, refuse or invalidate the registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to goods not originating in the territory indicated, if use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Member is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.
    4. The protection under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be applicable against a geographical indication which, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, falsely represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory.

    Article 23
    Additional Protection for Geographical Indications
    for Wines and Spirits
    1. Each Member shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent use of a geographical indication identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question or identifying spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question, even where the true origin of the goods is indicated or the geographical indication is used in translation or accompanied by expressions such as “kind”, “type”, “style”, “imitation” or the like.
    2. The registration of a trademark for wines which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying wines or for spirits which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying spirits shall be refused or invalidated, ex officio if a Member’s legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, with respect to such wines or spirits not having this origin.
    3. In the case of homonymous geographical indications for wines, protection shall be accorded to each indication, subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22. Each Member shall determine the practical conditions under which the homonymous indications in question will be differentiated from each other, taking into account the need to ensure equitable treatment of the producers concerned and that consumers are not misled.
    4. In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines, negotiations shall be undertaken in the Council for TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in the system.

    Article 24
    International Negotiations; Exceptions

    1. Members agree to enter into negotiations aimed at increasing the protection of individual geographical indications under Article 23. The provisions of paragraphs 4 through 8 below shall not be used by a Member to refuse to conduct negotiations or to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements. In the context of such negotiations, Members shall be willing to consider the continued applicability of these provisions to individual geographical indications whose use was the subject of such negotiations.
    2. The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section; the first such review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Any matter affecting the compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention of the Council, which, at trequest of a Member, shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned. The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this Section.
    3. In implementing this Section, a Member shall not diminish the protection of geographical indications that existed in that Member immediately prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
    4. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular geographical indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of that Member either (a) for at least 10 years preceding 15 April 1994 or (b) in good faith preceding that date.
    5. Where a trademark has been applied for or registered in good faith, or where rights to a trademark have been acquired through use in good faith either:
    (a) before the date of application of these provisions in that Member as defined in Part VI; or
    (b) before the geographical indication is protected in its country of origin; measures adopted to implement this Section shall not prejudice eligibility for or the validity of the registration of a trademark, or the right to use a trademark, on the basis that such a trademark is identical with, or similar to, a geographical indication.
    6. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to goods or services for which the relevant indication is identical with the term customary in common language as the common name for such goods or services in the territory of that Member. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to products of the vine for which the relevant indication is identical with the customary name of a grape variety existing in the territory of that Member as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
    7. A Member may provide that any request made under this Section in connection with the use or registration of a trademark must be presented within five years after the adverse use of the protected indication has become generally known in that Member or after the date of registration of the trademark in that Member provided that the trademark has been published by that date, if such date is earlier than the date on which the adverse use became generally known in that Member, provided that the geographical indication is not used or registered in bad faith.
    8. The provisions of this Section shall in no way prejudice the right of any person to use, in the course of trade, that person’s name or the name of that person’s predecessor in business, except where such name is used in such a manner as to mislead the public.

    9. There shall be no obligation under this Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not or cease to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country.

    SECTION 4: INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS

    Article 25
    Requirements for Protection

    1. Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
    2. Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law.

    Article 26
    Protection

    1. The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
    2. Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
    3. The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years.

    SECTION 5: PATENTS

    Article 27
    Patentable Subject Matter

    1. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3, patents shall be available for any inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive step and are capable of industrial application. Subject to paragraph 4 of Article 65, paragraph 8 of Article 70 and paragraph 3 of this Article, patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention, the field of technology and whether products are imported or locally produced.
    2. Members may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of the commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordre public or morality, including to protect human, animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment, provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited by their law.
    3. Members may also exclude from patentability:
    (a) diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;

    (b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    Article 28
    Rights Conferred

    1. A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
    (a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that product;
    (b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from the act of using the process, and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
    2. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts.

    Article 29
    Conditions on Patent Applicants
    1. Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the priority date of the application.
    2. Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant’s corresponding foreign applications and grants.

    Article 30
    Exceptions to Rights Conferred
    Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of thpatent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.

    Article 31
    Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder

    Where the law of a Member allows for other use of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government, the following provisions shall be respected:
    (a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
    (b) such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. This requirement may be waived by a Member in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
    (c) the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized, and in the case of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive;
    (d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
    (e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use;
    (f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Member authorizing such use;
    (g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
    (h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the authorization;
    (i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
    (j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
    (k) Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur;
    (l) where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent (“the second patent”) which cannot be exploited without infringing another patent (“the first patent”), the following additional conditions shall apply:
    (i) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
    (ii) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-licence on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent; and
    (iii) the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the second patent.

    Article 32
    Revocation/Forfeiture
    An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available.

    Article 33
    Term of Protection

    The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date.

    Article 34
    Process Patents: Burden of Proof

    1. For the purposes of civil proceedings in respect of the infringement of the rights of the owner referred to in paragraph 1(b) of Article 28, if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. Therefore, Members shall provide, in at least one of the following circumstances, that any identical product when produced without the consent of the patent owner shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process:
    (a) if the product obtained by the patented process is new;
    (b) if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.

    2. Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph 1 shall be on the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (a) is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (b) is fulfilled.
    3. In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account.

    SECTION 6: LAYOUT-DESIGNS (TOPOGRAPHIES) OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Article 35
    Relation to the IPIC Treaty

    Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (referred to in this Agreement as “layout-designs”) in accordance with Articles 2 through 7 (other than paragraph 3 of Article 6), Article 12 and paragraph 3 of Article 16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits and, in addition, to comply with the following provisions.

    Article 36
    Scope of the Protection

    Subject to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 37, Members shall consider unlawful the following acts if performed without the authorization of the right holder: importing, selling, or otherwise distributing for commercial purposes a protected layout-design, an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated, or an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.

    Article 37
    Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder

    1. Notwithstanding Article 36, no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts referred to in that Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. Members shall provide that, after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced, that person may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-design.
    2. The conditions set out in subparagraphs (a) through (k) of Article 31 shall apply mutatis mutandis in the event of any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder.

    Article 38
    Term of Protection

    1. In Membrequiring registration as a condition of protection, the term of protection of layout-designs shall not end before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date of filing an application for registration or from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
    2. In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection, layout-designs shall be protected for a term of no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
    3. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, a Member may provide that protection shall lapse 15 years after the creation of the layout-design.

    SECTION 7: PROTECTION OF UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION

    Article 39

    1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.
    2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices so long as such information:

    (a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;

    (b) has commercial value because it is secret; and

    (c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.

    3. Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.
    SECTION 8: CONTROL OF ANTI-COMPETITIVE PRACTICES
    IN CONTRACTUAL LICENCES

    Article 40
    1. Members agree that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and dissemination of technology.
    2. Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from specifying in their legislation licensing practices or conditions that may in particular cases constitute an abuse of intellectual property rights having an adverse effect on competition in the relevant market. As provided above, a Member may adopt, consistently with the other provisions of this Agreement, appropriate measures to prevent or control such practices, which may include for example exclusive grantback conditions, conditions preventing challenges to validity and coercive package licensing, in the light of the relevant laws and regulations of that Member.
    3. Each Member shall enter, upon request, into consultations with any other Member which has cause to believe that an intellectual property right owner that is a national or domiciliary of the Member to which the request for consultations has been addressed is undertaking practices in violation of the requesting Member’s laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section, and which wishes to secure compliance with such legislation, without prejudice to any action under the law and to the full freedom of an ultimate decision of either Member. The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for, consultations with the requesting Member, and shall cooperate through supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question and of other information available to the Member, subject to domestic law and to the conclusion of mutually satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member.
    4. A Member whose nationals or domiciliaries are subject to proceedings in another Member concerning alleged violation of that other Member’s laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section shall, upon request, be granted an opportunity for consultations by the other Member under the same conditions as those foreseen in paragraph 3.

    PART III
    ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
    SECTION 1: GENERAL OBLIGATIONS

    Article 41
    1. Members shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Part are available under their law so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Agreement, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
    2. Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. They shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.
    3. Decisions on the merits of a case shall preferably be in writing and reasoned. They shall be made available at least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay. Decisions on the merits of a case shall be based only on evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
    4. Parties to a proceeding shall have an opportunity for review by a judicial authority of final administrative decisions and, subject to jurisdictional provisions in a Member’s law concerning the importance of a case, of at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case. However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for review of acquittals in criminal cases.
    5. It is understood that this Part does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general, nor does it affect the capacity of Members to enforce their law in general. Nothing in this Part creates any obligation with respect to the distribution of resources as between enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of law in general.

    SECTION 2: CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND REMEDIES

    Article 42
    Fair and Equitable Procedures
    Members shall make available to right holders civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered by this Agreement. Defendants shall have the right to written notice which is timely and contains sufficient detail, including the basis of the claims. Parties shall be allowed to be represented by independent legal counsel, and procedures shall not impose overly burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal appearances. All parties to such procedures shall be duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present all relevant evidence. The procedure shall provide a means to identify and protect confidential information, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements.

    Article 43
    Evidence

    1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority, where a party has presented reasonably available evidence sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to substantiation of its claims which lies in the control of the opposing party, to order that this evidence be produced by the opposing party, subject in appropriate cases to conditions which ensure the protection of confidential information.
    2. In cases in which a party to a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide necessary information within a reasonable period, or signiimpedes a procedure relating to an enforcement action, a Member may accord judicial authorities the authority to make preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, on the basis of the information presented to them, including the complaint or the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the denial of access to information, subject to providing the parties an opportunity to be heard on the allegations or evidence.

    Article 44
    Injunctions

    1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party to desist from an infringement, inter alia to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that involve the infringement of an intellectual property right, immediately after customs clearance of such goods. Members are not obliged to accord such authority in respect of protected subject matter acquired or ordered by a person prior to knowing or having reasonable grounds to know that dealing in such subject matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual property right.
    2. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Part and provided that the provisions of Part II specifically addressing use by governments, or by third parties authorized by a government, without the authorization of the right holder are complied with, Members may limit the remedies available against such use to payment of remuneration in accordance with subparagraph (h) of Article 31. In other cases, the remedies under this Part shall apply or, where these remedies are inconsistent with a Member’s law, declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available.

    Article 45
    Damages

    1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person’s intellectual property right by an infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in infringing activity.
    2. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder expenses, which may include appropriate attorney’s fees. In appropriate cases, Members may authorize the judicial authorities to order recovery of profits and/or payment of pre-established damages even where the infringer did not knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engage in infringing activity.

    Article 46
    Other Remedies
    In order to create an effective deterrent to infringement, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order that goods that they have found to be infringing be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right holder, or, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements, destroyed. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order that materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements. In considering such requests, the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties shall be taken into account. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional cases, to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce.

    Article 47
    Right of Information

    Members may provide that the judicial authorities shall have the authority, unless this would be out of proportion to the seriousness of the infringement, to order the infringer to inform the right holder of the identity of third persons involved in the production and distribution of the infringing goods or services and of their channels of distribution.

    Article 48
    Indemnification of the Defendant

    1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and who has abused enforcement procedures to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of such abuse. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate attorney’s fees.
    2. In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights, Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the administration of that law.

    Article 49
    Administrative Procedures

    To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.

    SECTION 3: PROVISIONAL MEASURES

    Article 50

    1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional measures:
    (a) to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right from occurring, and in particular to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of goods, including imported goods immediately after customs clearance;
    (b) to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement.
    2. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to adopt provisional measures inaudita altera parte where appropriate, in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or where there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
    3. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the right holder and that the applicant’s right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse.
    4. Where provisional measures have been adopted inaudita altera parte, the parties affected shall be given notice, without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest. A review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period after the notification of the measures, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
    5. The applicant may be required to supply other information necessary for the identification of the goods concerned by the authority that will execute the provisional measures.
    6. Without prejudice to paragraph 4, provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall, upon request by the defendant, be revoked or otherwise cease to have effect, if proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case are not initiated within a reasonable period, to be determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures where a Member’s law so permits or, in the absence of such a determination, not to exceed 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is the longer.
    7. Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the applicant, or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these measures.
    8. To the extent that any provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.

    SECTION 4: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO BORDER MEASURES

    Article 51
    Suspension of Release by CustoAuthorities

    Members shall, in conformity with the provisions set out below, adopt procedures to enable a right holder, who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods may take place, to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities, administrative or judicial, for the suspension by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation of such goods. Members may enable such an application to be made in respect of goods which involve other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the requirements of this Section are met. Members may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories.

    Article 52
    Application

    Any right holder initiating the procedures under Article 51 shall be required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that, under the laws of the country of importation, there is prima facie an infringement of the right holder’s intellectual property right and to supply a sufficiently detailed description of the goods to make them readily recognizable by the customs authorities. The competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable period whether they have accepted the application and, where determined by the competent authorities, the period for which the customs authorities will take action.

    Article 53
    Security or Equivalent Assurance

    1. The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
    2. Where pursuant to an application under this Section the release of goods involving industrial designs, patents, layout-designs or undisclosed information into free circulation has been suspended by customs authorities on the basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority, and the period provided for in Article 55 has expired without the granting of provisional relief by the duly empowered authority, and provided that all other conditions for importation have been complied with, the owner, importer, or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their release on the posting of a security in an amount sufficient to protect the right holder for any infringement. Payment of such security shall not prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder, it being understood that the security shall be released if the right holder fails to pursue the right of action within a reasonable period of time.

    Article 54
    Notice of Suspension

    The importer and the applicant shall be promptly notified of the suspension of the release of goods according to Article 51.

    Article 55
    Duration of Suspension

    If, within a period not exceeding 10 working days after the applicant has been served notice of the suspension, the customs authorities have not been informed that proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated by a party other than the defendant, or that the duly empowered authority has taken provisional measures prolonging the suspension of the release of the goods, the goods shall be released, provided that all other conditions for importation or exportation have been complied with; in appropriate cases, this time-limit may be extended by another 10 working days. If proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated, a review, including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed. Notwithstanding the above, where the suspension of the release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure, the provisions of paragraph 6 of Article 50 shall apply.

    Article 56
    Indemnification of the Importer
    and of the Owner of the Goods

    Relevant authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant to pay the importer, the consignee and the owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the wrongful detention of goods or through the detention of goods released pursuant to Article 55.

    Article 57
    Right of Inspection and Information

    Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, Members shall provide the competent authorities the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any goods detained by the customs authorities inspected in order to substantiate the right holder’s claims. The competent authorities shall also have authority to give the importer an equivalent opportunity to have any such goods inspected. Where a positive determination has been made on the merits of a case, Members may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder of the names and addresses of the consignor, the importer and the consignee and of the quantity of the goods in question.

    Article 58
    Ex Officio Action

    Where Members require competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the release of goods in respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed:
    (a) the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may assist them to exercise these powers;
    (b) the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension. Where the importer has lodged an appeal against the suspension with the competent authorities, the suspension shall be subject to the conditions, mutatis mutandis, set out at Article 55;
    (c) Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith.

    Article 59
    Remedies

    Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the right of the defendant to seek review by a judicial authority, competent authorities shall have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 46. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in an unaltered state or subject them to a different customs procedure, other than in exceptional circumstances.
    Article 60
    De Minimis Imports

    Members may exclude from the application of the above provisions small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travellers’ personal luggage or sent in small consignments.

    SECTION 5: CRIMINAL PROCEDURES

    Article 61
    Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity. In appropriate cases, remedies available shall also include the seizure, forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offence. Members may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property rights, in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale.

    PART IV

    ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
    RIGHTS AND RELATED INTER-PARTES PROCEDURES

    Article 62

    1. Members may require, as a condition of the acquisition or maintenance of the intellectual property rights provided for under Sections 2 through 6 of Part II, compliance with reasonable procedures and formalities. Such procedures and formalities shall be consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.

    . Where the acquisition of an intellectual property right is subject to the right being granted or registered, Members shall ensure that the procedures for grant or registration, subject to compliance with the substantive conditions for acquisition of the right, permit the granting or registration of the right within a reasonable period of time so as to avoid unwarranted curtailment of the period of protection.
    3. Article 4 of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks.
    4. Procedures concerning the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights and, where a Member’s law provides for such procedures, administrative revocation and inter partes procedures such as opposition, revocation and cancellation, shall be governed by the general principles set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 41.
    5. Final administrative decisions in any of the procedures referred to under paragraph 4 shall be subject to review by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority. However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for such review of decisions in cases of unsuccessful opposition or administrative revocation, provided that the grounds for such procedures can be the subject of invalidation procedures.

    PART V
    DISPUTE PREVENTION AND SETTLEMENT

    Article 63
    Transparency

    1. Laws and regulations, and final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application, made effective by a Member pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement (the availability, scope, acquisition, enforcement and prevention of the abuse of intellectual property rights) shall be published, or where such publication is not practicable made publicly available, in a national language, in such a manner as to enable governments and right holders to become acquainted with them. Agreements concerning the subject matter of this Agreement which are in force between the government or a governmental agency of a Member and the government or a governmental agency of another Member shall also be published.
    2. Members shall notify the laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 1 to the Council for TRIPS in order to assist that Council in its review of the operation of this Agreement. The Council shall attempt to minimize the burden on Members in carrying out this obligation and may decide to waive the obligation to notify such laws and regulations directly to the Council if consultations with WIPO on the establishment of a common register containing these laws and regulations are successful. The Council shall also consider in this connection any action required regarding notifications pursuant to the obligations under this Agreement stemming from the provisions of Article 6ter of the Paris Convention (1967).
    3. Each Member shall be prepared to supply, in response to a written request from another Member, information of the sort referred to in paragraph 1. A Member, having reason to believe that a specific judicial decision or administrative ruling or bilateral agreement in the area of intellectual property rights affects its rights under this Agreement, may also request in writing to be given access to or be informed in sufficient detail of such specific judicial decisions or administrative rulings or bilateral agreements.
    4. Nothing in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall require Members to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

    Article 64
    Dispute Settlement

    1. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise specifically provided herein.
    2. Subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes under this Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
    3. During the time period referred to in paragraph 2, the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope and modalities for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 made pursuant to this Agreement, and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval. Any decision of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extend the period in paragraph 2 shall be made only by consensus, and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance process.

    PART VI
    TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

    Article 65
    Transitional Arrangements

    1. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, no Member shall be obliged to apply the provisions of this Agreement before the expiry of a general period of one year following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
    2. A developing country Member is entitled to delay for a further period of four years the date of application, as defined in paragraph 1, of the provisions of this Agreement other than Articles 3, 4 and 5.
    3. Any other Member which is in the process of transformation from a centrally-planned into a market, free-enterprise economy and which is undertaking structural reform of its intellectual property system and facing special problems in the preparation and implementation of intellectual property laws and regulations, may also benefit from a period of delay as foreseen in paragraph 2.
    4. To the extent that a developing country Member is obliged by this Agreement to extend product patent protection to areas of technology not so protectable in its territory on the general date of application of this Agreement for that Member, as defined in paragraph 2, it may delay the application of the provisions on product patents of Section 5 of Part II to such areas of technology for an additional period of five years.
    5. A Member availing itself of a transitional period under paragraphs 1, 2, 3 or 4 shall ensure that any changes in its laws, regulations and practice made during that period do not result in a lesser degree of consistency with the provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 66
    Least-Developed Country Members

    1. In view of the special needs and requirements of least-developed country Members, their economic, financial and administrative constraints, and their need for flexibility to create a viable technological base, such Members shall not be required to apply the provisions of this Agreement, other than Articles 3, 4 and 5, for a period of 10 years from the date of application as defined under paragraph 1 of Article 65. The Council for TRIPS shall, upon duly motivated request by a least-developed country Member, accord extensions of this period.
    2. Developed country Members shall provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least-developed country Members in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base.

    Article 67
    Technical Cooperation

    In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement, developed country Members shall provide, on request and on mutually agreed terms and conditions, technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and least-developed country Members. Such cooperation shall include assistance in the preparation of laws and regulations on the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as on the prevention of their abuse, and shall include support regarding the establishment or reinforcement of domestic offices and agencies relevant to these matters, including the training of personnel.

    PART VII
    INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS; FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article 68
    Council for Trade-Related Aspects of
    Intellectual Property Rights

    The Council for TRIPS shall monitor the operation of this Agreement and, in particular, Members’ compliance with their obligations hereunder, and shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on matters relating tthe trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. It shall carry out such other responsibilities as assigned to it by the Members, and it shall, in particular, provide any assistance requested by them in the context of dispute settlement procedures. In carrying out its functions, the Council for TRIPS may consult with and seek information from any source it deems appropriate. In consultation with WIPO, the Council shall seek to establish, within one year of its first meeting, appropriate arrangements for cooperation with bodies of that Organization.

    Article 69
    International Cooperation

    Members agree to cooperate with each other with a view to eliminating international trade in goods infringing intellectual property rights. For this purpose, they shall establish and notify contact points in their administrations and be ready to exchange information on trade in infringing goods. They shall, in particular, promote the exchange of information and cooperation between customs authorities with regard to trade in counterfeit trademark goods and pirated copyright goods.

    Article 70
    Protection of Existing Subject Matter

    1. This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts which occurred before the date of application of the Agreement for the Member in question.
    2. Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, this Agreement gives rise to obligations in respect of all subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question, and which is protected in that Member on the said date, or which meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under the terms of this Agreement. In respect of this paragraph and paragraphs 3 and 4, copyright obligations with respect to existing works shall be solely determined under Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971), and obligations with respect to the rights of producers of phonograms and performers in existing phonograms shall be determined solely under Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971) as made applicable under paragraph 6 of Article 14 of this Agreement.
    3. There shall be no obligation to restore protection to subject matter which on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question has fallen into the public domain.

    4. In respect of any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which become infringing under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement, and which were commenced, or in respect of which a significant investment was made, before the date of acceptance of the WTO Agreement by that Member, any Member may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to the right holder as to the continued performance of such acts after the date of application of this Agreement for that Member. In such cases the Member shall, however, at least provide for the payment of equitable remuneration.
    5. A Member is not obliged to apply the provisions of Article 11 and of paragraph 4 of Article 14 with respect to originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of this Agreement for that Member.
    6. Members shall not be required to apply Article 31, or the requirement in paragraph 1 of Article 27 that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology, to use without the authorization of the right holder where authorization for such use was granted by the government before the date this Agreement became known.
    7. In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration, applications for protection which are pending on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question shall be permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the provisions of this Agreement. Such amendments shall not include new matter.
    8. Where a Member does not make available as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement patent protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products commensurate with its obligations under Article 27, that Member shall:
    (a) notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI, provide as from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed;
    (b) apply to these applications, as of the date of application of this Agreement, the criteria for patentability as laid down in this Agreement as if those criteria were being applied on the date of filing in that Member or, where priority is available and claimed, the priority date of the application; and
    (c) provide patent protection in accordance with this Agreement as from the grant of the patent and for the remainder of the patent term, counted from the filing date in accordance with Article 33 of this Agreement, for those of these applications that meet the criteria for protection referred to in subparagraph (b).
    9. Where a product is the subject of a patent application in a Member in accordance with paragraph 8(a), exclusive marketing rights shall be granted, notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI, for a period of five years after obtaining marketing approval in that Member or until a product patent is granted or rejected in that Member, whichever period is shorter, provided that, subsequent to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, a patent application has been filed and a patent granted for that product in another Member and marketing approval obtained in such other Member.

    Article 71
    Review and Amendment

    1. The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 65. The Council shall, having regard to the experience gained in its implementation, review it two years after that date, and at identical intervals thereafter. The Council may also undertake reviews in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification or amendment of this Agreement.
    2. Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights achieved, and in force, in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article X of the WTO Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for TRIPS.

    Article 72
    Reservations

    Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.
    Article 73
    Security Exceptions

    Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed:
    (a) to require a Member to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential security interests; or
    (b) to prevent a Member from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests;
    (i) relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived;
    (ii) relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;
    (iii) taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations; or
    (c) to prevent a Member from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.